Kōrero: Tuakiri o Aotearoa me te kāwanatanga

Whārangi 7. Ngā whakahaere o te ture

Ngā whakaahua

Te wehe i ngā mana

He motuhake te tū o te rāngai ture (ngā kaiwhakamārama, kaiwhakatinana i ngā ture) i te rōpū hanga ture (ko te pāremata tēnei), i te mana whakahaere (te rōpū whakahaere i te kāwanatanga). Ko te kāwana tianara ka tohu i ngā kaiwhakawā. Nā runga i ngā tikanga kāwanatanga (conventions) kāore e taea e te kāwanatanga te tohutohu i ngā kaiwhakawā. Kei te Ture Whakamana (Constitution Act) e takoto ana ngā wā ruarua ka taea te pana kaiwhakawā.

Ngā kōti

Te tātai o ngā kōti o Aotearoa:

  • ngā kōti ā-rohe
  • te Kōti Teitei
  • te Kōti Pīra
  • te Kōti Matua, nāna i whakakapi te Komiti Ture o te Kaunihera Motuhake o te Kuini (Privy Council) i te tau 2003, ka puritia ki te Kōti Matua te whakataunga whakamutunga mō ngā pīra ā-ture o Aotearoa.

Ko te mahi a ngā kaiwhakawā i ngā kōti o Aotearoa, he whakarongo ki ngā kōrero a tētahi taha, a tētahi taha, ka whakaputa he whakataunga. Takea mai ai tēnei tikanga ture i Peretānia.

Ētahi momo kōti

He wāhanga te Kōti Whānau me te Kōti Taiohi o ngā kōti ā-rohe. Tātaringia ai e te Kōti take ā-Mahi (Employment Court) ngā kerēme i raro i te Ture Whakawhanaunga ā-mahi (Employment Relations Act); ko te mahi a te Kōti Taiao he whakarongo ki ngā kerēme ka taka mai ki raro i te Ture Tiaki i ngā Hua o te Taiao (Resource Management Act). Ko te mahi a te Kōti Whenua Māori he tirotiro i ngā kerēme whenua e pā ana ki te Māori.

Ngā mana whakaāio (justices of the peace) me ngā taraipiunara.

Ko te mahi a te hunga ka tohungia hei mana whakaāio, he whakahaere i ētahi mahi iti i te ture. He mana ā-ture kei ētahi taraipiunara, kōmihana, manatū hoki. He tūranga keretao noa iho tō ētahi. Tū ai ngā kōmihana rangahau mō tētahi wā hei āta rangahau i tētahi take ake.

Te ture

E whai ake nei ko ngā ture ka whakatauhia e ngā kōti o Aotearoa:

  • Ture tuku iho (common law). I te tau 1840 ka mana te ture tuku iho o Ingarangi ki Aotearoa. Ināianei, ka taka mai ki roto i ngā ture tuku iho o Aotearoa ētahi o ngā whakataunga a ngā kōti o Aotearoa.
  • Ture kāwanatanga (statute law). Koinei ngā ture o nāianei, o te whare pāremata o Aotearoa.
  • Ture kāwanatanga o Ingarangi (United Kingdom statute law). Iti noa ngā ture o Ingarangi kei te pā tonu ki ngā ture o Aotearoa.
  • Ture iti (subordinate legislation). Hangaia ai ngā rekureihana i raro i te mana o Pāremata. Kei ngā mana ā-rohe te tikanga ki te hanga ture ā-rohe.
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

John Wilson, 'Tuakiri o Aotearoa me te kāwanatanga - Ngā whakahaere o te ture', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/tuakiri-o-aotearoa-me-te-kawanatanga/page-7 (accessed 19 July 2019)

Story by John Wilson, published 8 Feb 2005, updated 16 Sep 2016