Kōrero: Tikanga rua

Whārangi 3. Ngā taupatupatu haere tonu

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

'Ehara i te tikanga rua tūturu'

Kua whakahēngia te tikanga rua, nā te mea ka aukati i te tino rangatiratanga i whakaaetia ai ki te Māori i raro i te tiriti. Kua tohe ētahi he pāpaku te whakahou i ngā whakanōhanga me ngā hātepe onāianei, ā, he iti te ahu whakamua o ngāi Māori me ngā matatika tiriti. E whakapono ana rātou ka whakahaua e te tikanga rua tūturu i te whanaketanga o ngā whakanōhanga rerekē, he Māori nei, hei āta whakaatu i te rangapū tiriti. I te tau 2015 i tukuna te Iwi Chairs Forum i Matike mai, he pūrongo i taunaki i te huringa turepapa i Aotearoa. I marohitia ētahi tauira e taea ai te Māori te whakahaere i te mana (mā te Māori, mō te Māori) i te taha o tauiwi. I te tau 2019, i whakahaua e te kāwanatanga he pūrongo motuhake e kīia nei He puapua. Ka kōrero tēnei mō te ara kia whakamana a Aotearoa i te Whakapuakitanga o te Kotahitanga o te Ao mō ngā Iwi Taketake i Aotearoa nei. Ka kōrerotia ngā ara mā te Māori kia whakamahi i te mana nō roto o te tūāpapa tikanga Māori.

Te kākano maha, te tikanga rua rānei?

He maha ngā iwi me ngā ahurea e noho nei ki Aotearoa, engari ka aro noa te kāwanatanga ki te ahu whakatuanui a te Pākehā me te ahurea taketake a te Māori. Ka hiahia ētahi tāngata he ōkawa kē te kākano maha i Aotearoa. Ko te tikanga o tēnei i roto i ngā kupu kaupapahere, ka ōkawa te aro atu a te kāwanatanga me te whakarato hoki mō te ahurea, reo, mōtika hoki o ngā ahurea huhua, kaua ko te Pākehā me te Māori anake.

Heoi anō, e whakapono ana te hunga e tautoko ana i te tikanga rua mā te kaupapahere kākano maha ōkawa e ōrite ai te mana o te ahurea me te reo Māori ki ērā atu ahurea, reo hoki. E tohe ana rātou i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi kua waihangatia tētahi kawatau motuhake kia whakahaumaru te Karauna i ngā mōtika o te Māori. Ki ngā tāngata maha e tautoko ana i te tikanga rua, he tūāpapa hira tēnei mō tētahi Aotearoa kākano maha angitu. He mea hira e taea ana e ngā tāngata katoa te wāteatanga kia whakamahi i ō rātou hiahia ahurea; ko te taupatupatu kē me whai ēhea ahurea i te whakamanatanga ōkawa.

Maha- tikanga rua rānei?

I kī a Ranginui Walker (Whakatōhea) i tētahi wā, ‘Māori remind Pākehā that becoming bicultural enough to be at ease in the other founding culture of the nation is the first step towards becoming multicultural.’1 I te tau 1997, ka whakapae te Race Relations Conciliator Rajen Prasad i te ara hou kia whakaaro mō Aotearoa i karo i ngā tautohetohe o mua. Ka tautuhi pēnei ia i Aotearoa ‘a multi-ethnic society with an indigenous culture and with a founding document that regulates the relationship between iwi and Crown.’2

Ngā motu e rua, tikanga rua rānei?

Kua marohi ētahi tāngata he hiahia kia kōrero mō Aotearoa hei motu-rua, kaua ko te tikanga rua. I raro i te 'motu-rua' ko Aotearoa te whenua kotahi me ngā motu e rua - Māori me te tauiwi. Ka whakaae tēnei tauira i te motu tauiwi kia whai i te ara kākano maha, me te whakaae ki te Māori te kōwhiringa ki te whai i te mana motuhake kaha ake.

Ka kī te kaipūtaiao tōrangapū Dominic O'Sullivan (Te Rarawa, Ngāti Kahu) ko te tikanga rua he 'whakaaro takirua' e whakamahia whānuitia ana i ngā 1980 me ngā 1990 kia whai reo te Māori i roto i ngā whakataunga tōrangapū i raro i te anga o te rangapū tiriti i waenga i te Māori me te Karauna. Ka tohe ia ko te Māori te teina i taua hononga, ā, kāore e whakatutukihia ngā tūmanako Māori mō te mana motuhake i raro i taua tauira. Ka taunaki ia i te kirirarau rerekē e whakarite ana i te Māori i roto i te rerekētanga o tana hononga ki te Karauna.3

Ahakoa kāore i te kōrerotia whānuitia te 'tikanga rua' i tēnei wā, ka kuneroa tonu ngā whakaaro mō te hononga tika i waenga i te Māori me te tauiwi.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Ranginui Walker, Ka whawhai tonu mātou: struggle without end. Rev. ed. Tāmaki Makaurau: Penguin, 2004, wh. 390. Ki muri
  2. I kōrerotia i roto i Augie Fleras rāua ko Paul Spoonley, Recalling Aotearoa: indigenous politics and ethnic relations in New Zealand. Tāmaki Makaurau: Oxford University Press, 1999, wh. 221. Ki muri
  3. Dominic O’Sullivan, ‘Postcolonialism’, i roto i J. Hayward (ed.), New Zealand government and politics (putanga 6). Poipiripi: Oxford University Press, 2015, wh. 106–113. Ki muri
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Janine Hayward, 'Tikanga rua - Ngā taupatupatu haere tonu', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/tikanga-rua/page-3 (accessed 24 June 2024)

He kōrero nā Janine Hayward, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012, reviewed & revised 10 Jan 2023 me te āwhina o Janine Hayward