Kōrero: Te mana o te wāhine

Whārangi 5. Te ārahi whai muri i te koronitanga

Ngā whakaahua

Te koronitanga me te wahine Māori

Mai rā anō ka whai wāhi te wahine ki ngā take ā-iwi. E ai ki tētahi tuhinga i roto i te niupepa i te tau 1861 ka uru hoki ngā wāhine ki te rūnanga: ‘Ta te [M]aori, me hui katoa, te iti te rahi, te tane te wahine, te koroheke te ruruhi ... e uru katoa ana ki nga Runanga [M]aori, me o ratou whakaaro me o ratou korero; e whakatika ana tenei wahine me ana korero ano ...’1

Haina ki konei koa

Ko ngā wāhine Māori i waitohu i te Tiriti o Waitangi ko Takurua rātou ko Te Marama, ko Ana Hamu, ko Marama, ko Ereonora, ko Rangi Topeora, ko Kahe Te Rau-o-te-Rangi, ko Pari, ko Te Kehu, ko Ngāraurēkau, ko Te Rere o Maki, ko Hoana Riutoto ko Te Wairākau.

Wāhine Māori pupuri whenua

I ngā wā o mua ka poua ngā whenua ki ngā mea wāhine, nā te mea kāore e riro te mana whenua i te pākūhā ki te ahi kā. I te wā o te Kotahitanga ka totohe te hunga wāhine me whakauru ki roto i te ture te wāhi ki ngā wāhine Māori hei kaipupuri whenua, hei kaiārahi hoki. Nā te wāhine me te tāne i haina te petihana o te Kotahitanga ki a Kuini Wikitōria i te tau 1897.

Tukua mai kia piri

I te pakanga i Ōrākau i te tau 1864, ka whakahoki a Ahumai Te Paerata ki ngā kupu kia puta ngā wāhine me ngā tamariki, ‘Ki te mate ngā tāne, me mate anō ngā wāhine me ngā tamariki’.2

Te whakatakē i te wahine

Kua matapaki te matanga ture a Ani Mikaere i ngā kōrero o ngā pānga o te koronitanga ki te wahine Māori, me te ngana o te mihinare me tauiwi kia whakakore atu i ngā tikanga ake a te Māori hei whakatau noa mai i āna anō tikanga Pākehā. E ai ki a Mikaere ka whakarerekēhia ngā tātai arorangi, kōrero tuku iho hoki a te Māori i te kōrero tuaruatanga mai kia arotahi ki ngā atua tāne. Whāia i tērā wā ka akohia e ngā kura mihinare te kōtiro Māori ki ngā mahi o te kāinga, ki te noho hoa pono hoki. Ko te nuinga o te mihinare me te tangata whai ka uaua ki te rangatiratanga o te wahine Māori me tāna āhei kia whakawhitiwhiti kōrero kē ki te tāne. Tekau mā toru anake ngā wahine rangatira i waitohu i te Tiriti o Waitangi (o ngā waitohu e 512). Ko te tamāhine a te rangatira o Ngāti Toa a Te Pēhi tonu tētahi kāore i tukuna kia waitohu i te tiriti i te whakaaro kāore i te wahine te mana. Nā tōna whakatakariri ki tēnei takahi ka whakahē hoki tana tāne kia waitohu.

Kokoraho tiriti

Nō te tau 1993 ka puta te kokoraho a tētahi rōpū wāhine ki te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi ki ngā kaupapa tāmi a te Karauna i te wahine Māori mai anō i te tau 1840. Nō konā ka tūpuhi te wairua, te tikanga whakaaro me ngā oranga pāpori, ōhanga hoki o te wahine Māori. Hei tauira, e 50 ōrau te tokomaha o te wahine Māori ka momi paipa, ā, he iti iho tōna utu mahi i tō te tāne Māori, i te wahine Pākehā rānei.

Mana whenua, mana kōwhiri pōti

Hāunga tēnei ka ārahi tonu ngā wāhine rangatira i ngā kaupapa a ō rātou iwi. Ko ētahi ka whawhai i te taha o ā rātou tāne i ngā pakanga whenua o Aotearoa, i roto hoki i te tukanga Kōti Whenua Māori. Arā anō ētahi pērā i a Mākereti Hinewai o Ngāti Kaputuhi i tū hei kaitaunaki matua ki ngā kōrero tuku iho, ngā whakapapa me ngā pānga whenua o ō rātou hapū.

Ka petihana hoki ngā wāhine rangatira ki te kāwanatanga mō ngā take whenua me te mana ki te kōwhiri pōti i te taha o ō rātou hoa Pākehā, ā, nō te tau 1893 ka tutuki tēnei. Ko ēnei toa mautohe ko Meri Mangakāhia o Te Rarawa, ko Niniwa-i-te-rangi o Ngāti Kahungunu, ko Takarea Te Heuheu o Ngāti Tūwharetoa me Sophia Hērangi o Tūhourangi, ā, whai wāhi katoa rātou ki ngā take o te Paremata o Te Kotahitanga ki Pāpāwai, Wairarapa. Atu i te whakatū kōmiti wahine ka totohe hoki rātou kia tū hoki te wahine ki te paremata Māori, ka mutu he kaupapa i tutuki i te tau 1897. Ko Niniwa-i-te-rangi te etita (kaituku moni hoki) o te niupepa Māori o Te Puke ki Hikurangi.

Mai i te wāhanga tuatahi o te rautau 1900 ko Te Puea Hērangi o Waikato e ārahi ana i te Kīngitanga. I arataki ia i te Kīngitanga ki te marae o Tūrangawaewae, ki roto hoki ki ngā take whenua raupatu o Waikato. Nā tōna ngākau māhaki ka puta anō te rongo mō te Kīngitanga ki te motu.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Te Manuhiri Tuarangi and Maori Intelligencer 10 (1 Here-turi-kōkā 1861), wh. 10. Back
  2. I takoto ki 'MANIAPOTO, Rewi Manga.' Kei A. H. McLintock, ētita, An encyclopaedia of New Zealand, i tāngia tuatahitia i 1966, http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/1966/maniapoto-rewi-manga/1 (i tirohia i te 29 Paenga-whāwhā 2011). Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rawinia Higgins rāua ko Paul Meredith, 'Te mana o te wāhine - Te ārahi whai muri i te koronitanga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-mana-o-te-wahine/page-5 (accessed 27 May 2019)

Story by Rawinia Higgins rāua ko Paul Meredith, published 5 May 2011, updated 1 Jun 2017