Kōrero: Te iwi Māori kei ngā tāone

Whārangi 2. Ngā tūmanako

Ngā whakaahua

I te hūnukutanga o ngā Māori ki ngā tāone, ka tuwhera ētahi āhuatanga hōu mō rātou. Heoi, i reira anō ngā mate.

Te mahi me te mātauranga

He pai ake ngā utu mō ngā mahi i ngā tāone. Hāunga, i te taenga tuatahi o ngā Māori ki ngā tāone, iti noa iho ō rātou mātauranga Pākehā, nā reira rātou i huri ai ki ngā mahi ā-ringa. Kāore i pai ēnei mahi i te mea, inä paheke ana te ōhanga, koinei ngā mahi tuatahi ka topea. Mahi ai te Māori i ngā wheketere mahi kākahu, ngā wāpu, ngā whare patu kararehe, ngā mahi taraiwa me ngā mahi kaunihera. Ko ētahi ka kuhu hei kura māhita, hei kaimahi tari kāwanatanga, ko te nuinga ki Te Tari Māori. Nā te mātauranga ka tae ētahi tamariki ki ngā tāone, ki ngā kaupapa whakangungu pēnei i te trade training a Te Tari Māori. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1970 mutu ai tēnei kaupapa whakangungu.

Ngā wero o te noho tāone

Ka haere mai te tangata mai i tōna kāinga tūturu, mai i te wāhi e mōhiotia ia e te katoa. Ka tae ki te tāone, he kūare ki ngā tāngata, he tauhōu ia. Ko ētahi ka hua, ka whai mahi pai, ka whiwhi i ngā hua o te noho ki te tāone me te mau tonu ki ngā here ki te kāinga tūturu. Ko ētahi kāore i pai te noho ki te tāone.

Ngā rerekētanga

I te tau 1961 ka takoto ki Te Ao Hou ētahi whakatūpato mō te Māori:

‘Ehara i te mea māmā te noho ki te tāone. Me rite tō haere ki te mahi, me penapena āu moni. He wā ka whakararua tāu noho, ka mate rānei koe ki te awhi i tētahi hoa, whanaunga rānei kua uru ki te raruraru.’ 1

Te noho whare

I ngā tekau tau o 1940 me 1950, ko te rapu wāhi noho pai te mahi nui. Ka mate ngā Māori ki te noho ki ngā wāhi pōhara o te pokapū o Tāmaki – ki Freemans Bay, ki Ponsonby, ki Herne Bay. Ka whakatūria ngā whare noho pēnei i a Waipapa ki Tāmaki, i a Rāhui ki Kirikiriroa, i a Rēhua ki Ōtautahi. Ka tīmata te hanga a Te Tari Māori i ētahi whare ki ngā wāhi pai o Tāmaki me ētahi atu wāhi. Ko te kaupapa here a te kāwanatanga, kia whakanōhia ngā whānau Māori ki roto i te mātotoru o te iwi Pākehā. Hei tā rātou, he pai ake tēnei i te whakahui i ngā whare Māori ki te wāhi kotahi.

Heoi, ka piki tonu te tini ka neke ki ngā tāone. Whāia, ka whakaritea he kāinga mō rātou e te kāwanatanga ki ngā wāhi pēnei i Te Atatū, i Ōtara me Māngere ki Tāmaki, pēnei i Porirua, i Te Awakairangi me Wainuiomata ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Ka tipu he hapori Māori ki ēnei tapa tāone.

Ngā raruraru ka pā

Ka raruraru ētahi Māori i te whiwhi mahi tūturu me te utu nama. Nā te kore whānau hei awhi i a rātou, ka taka ētahi ki te raruraru. Nā te kore mahi, nā te mokemoke me ngā whanonga rerekē, ka huri ētahi o te rangatahi Māori. Noho ai ētahi i ngā tiriti, ka kuhu rānei ki ngā kēnge. I kōrero a Alan Duff mō tēnei āhuatanga i tana pukapuka Once were warriors (1990). Nō te tau 1994 ka puta te pikitia.

Ngā raruraru ka pā

Te mau ki te tuakiri

Mai anō i te tīmatanga, kawea mai ai ki te tāone e ngā tāngata ā rātou tikanga me ngā mea nui ki a rātou. Hokihoki ai rātou ki ō rātou kāinga tūturu. Ka whakahokia ngā tūpāpaku ki te wā kāinga kia tanumia. Heoi nā te noho ki te tāone me te hāngai ki ngā tikanga Pākehā, ka uaua mō ētahi te hoki ki te kāinga tūturu, me te tawhiti hoki. Ko ētahi Māori ka tau ki te tāone, kāore i hiahia kia hokihoki ki te kāinga tūturu.

Te whakatipuranga hōu

Ka taka ki ngā whakatipuranga, kātahi ka uaua rawa atu te pupuri i ngā hononga ki te kāinga tūturu o ō rātou pākeke, kaumātua. I te tāone, ka wehe rātou i te marae me ngā tikanga e mōhiotia ai ko wai te tangata. Kāore he kaumātua hei arataki i a rātou i roto i te tāone, hei ako i a rātou mō tēnei mea te ‘Māori’. Nā te pakeketanga ki te tāone, kāore i kaha te hiahia kia ‘hoki ki te kāinga’. Ka tipu he whakatipuranga Māori te āhua, engari kāore i mōhio ki te reo Māori me ngā tikanga.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Te Ao Hou, no. 36 (September 1961): 29. › Back
  2. Te Whānau: a celebration of Te Whānau o Waipareira. Waitakere City: Te Whānau o Waipareira, 2001, p. 12. › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Paul Meredith, 'Te iwi Māori kei ngā tāone - Ngā tūmanako', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-iwi-maori-kei-nga-taone/page-2 (accessed 23 May 2019)

Story by Paul Meredith, published 8 Feb 2005, updated 17 Feb 2015