Kōrero: Te hōiho me te iwi

Whārangi 2. Te hōiho i te ahurea Māori

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te reo

Nā te wehi me te ohorere o ngā tāngata Māori, ka kīia ngā hōiho tōmua he taniwha he tipua rānei. Ka whakahuatia hokitia te kararehe waewae whā nei, he kurī, he kararehe rānei. Nō tana taenga ki te wā kāinga, ka whakahuatia e Te Maitaranui o Ngāi Tūhoe te hōiho, he ‘kurī waha tangata’.

Waihoki, ko te ‘hōiho’ te ingoa hōrapa, he whakamaōritanga o te kupu ‘horse’. Tērā he pānui mō te hoko i tētahi tāriana mai i tētahi nūpepa Māori o te tau 1875; ‘He hōiho kaha, he kurī kakama ki te haere’. 1

Tērā a ‘kāmia’, he kupu rerekē a te Māori mō te hōiho, i ahu mai i ngā kupu a te Pākehā ka whakatata haere ana ki te hōiho, ‘Come here’. Ko te kupu a Ngāti Porou mō te hōiho rahi ko ‘hōiho pūru kāta’, ki te reo Pākehā ko ‘pull cart horse’.

Ngā poropiti

Kāore i kuhuna te hōiho ki ngā pūrākau me ngā pakiwaitara a te Māori, heoi, i tangohia hei tohu ki te taha wairua. I hau te rongo mō te hōiho mā o Te Kooti, ki ētahi ko Pōkai Whenua te ingoa, ki ētahi ko Te Panerua. Whakapono ai te iwi he mana wairua i te hōiho nei. He hōiho anō tō Te Kooti, he mangumangu, ka whai haere i ngā tapuwae o tōna tira. Kīia ai taua hōiho, he tapu. Tirohia ai ēnei hōiho anō he hōiho poautinitini, pērā i ngā hōiho poautinitini e whā i te Pukapuka o Ngā Whakakitenga i te Paipera Tapu.

He poropiti a Rua Kēnana nō Ngāi Tūhoe i whai i ngā tapuwae o Te Kooti. E mea ana te kōrero, i eke a ia ki taua hōiho mā (ko Te Ia) o Te Kooti ka kuhu ki te wharepuni a Rongopai kei Repongaere i Te Tai Rāwhiti.

Te hōiho me ngā iwi

E rua ngā momo o te hōiho kua whai tūranga ki ētahi iwi.

Ngā hōiho o Kaimanawa

Tērā ngā hōiho kōwao o te pae maunga o Kaimanawa i te puku o Te Ika-a-Māui. I heke iho ēnei hōiho i ngā hōiho o te Pākehā me te Māori i oma, i tukua rānei ki te koraha. He pānga ō ēnei hōiho ki te iwi o Ngāti Tūwharetoa, me kī, ki te hapū o Ngāti Tama Whiti. He kaitiaki, he taonga ēnei hōiho ki te iwi, inarā kua takoto he kerēme ki te aroaro o Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi kia kaua ngā hōiho nei e patua.

Kai nā te kurī

I ngā rā o mua, tērā tētahi tangata i Te Tai Rāwhiti, ka hoko i tētahi hōiho mai i te tangata whenua. He iwi mōhio ki te tautohe me te hoko. Ka tāpae e ia āna moni, rima tekau tāra. Kātahi ka kuhu te Māori nōna te hōiho rā ki tōna whare, ka hoki mai me tana pū, me tana kī, mehemea koira anake te utu, he pai atu tana pupuhi i te hōiho hei kai mā āna kurī. Tere tonu te whakapiki a te Pākehā rā i te utu, whakaaetia ana.

Te hōiho Nāti

Ko te rohe o Ngāti Porou i Te Tai Rāwhiti te kāinga o te momo hōiho kīia ai ko te Nāti. Hei tohu ki te whanaungatanga tata i waenganui i te hōiho me te iwi, ko te ingoa kārangaranga o Ngāti Porou tangata, ko Nāti. Heke ai ngā momo o te Nāti i te Clydesdale me te thoroughbred. Hāunga te hiamoe o te āhua, he hōiho mōhio te Nāti. He hōiho kaha ki te piki maunga, te whakawhiti awa, te haere ki te ngahere, te haere i ngā wāhi kōhatuhatu.

Te hōiho Māori

Ka whai wāhi nui te hōiho i te maha o ngā hapori Māori puta noa i te tuawhenua o Te Ika-a-Māui. Nā tēnei, ka hua te ingoa kārangaranga, te ‘hōiho Māori’. Heke iho ēnei momo hōiho i ngā momo hōiho mau tera o Te Tai Tokerau, o Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi, o Te Rohe Pōtae, o Te Tai Rāwhiti. Hei ētahi wā ka tukua ēnei hōiho kia mohoao, ko tētahi tāriana me tana māpu uwha. Ka whānau noa ngā punua ki te koraha. Ehara i te hōiho mohoao tūturu – he rangatira tō tēnā hōiho, he rangatira tō tēnā hōiho. Ka tiakina te kahanga o ngā hōiho mā te wehe atu i ngā mea kore take me te whakakuhu i te toto hou, kia aha ai, kia puta ai he hōiho kaha, he hōiho mō te nui o ngā mahi.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Te Wananga 21, (25 Hepetema 1875), pukapukea 2, p. 235. › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Basil Keane, 'Te hōiho me te iwi - Te hōiho i te ahurea Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-hoiho-me-te-iwi/page-2 (accessed 15 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Basil Keane, i tāngia i te 24 Nov 2008, updated 1 Jul 2015