Kōrero: Tapa whenua

Whārangi 1. Te hōpara me te tapa whenua

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te tapa me te whakaingoa

Puta noa i te ao, ko te tapa ingoa tētahi tikanga ka hāngai pū ki te hōpara me te whakaingoa whenua. He tikanga kei runga i te tapa whenua, pērā i te:

  • tapa ki ngā ingoa me ngā tohu mai i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa
  • taunaha hei whakaū i ngā take ki te whenua
  • tapa i runga i te āhua o te takoto
  • tapa ki tētahi tipuna
  • tapa i runga i tētahi take hītori, take wairua rānei
  • tapa mō tētahi take whai tikanga nui.

Ko te tapatapa whenua me te taunaha whenua he kokoraho ōkawa i te whenua nā te whakaingoa whenua.

Ngā ingoa mai i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa

Tapaina ai e ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa te maha rawa atu o ngā wāhi ki te āhua tonu o taua wāhi. Arā ngā ingoa kua hōrapa whānui, pērā i a motu, i a maunga, i a awa. Whāia, kei ngā moka katoa o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ngā ingoa pērā i a Maunganui, i a Maungaroa, i a Maungatapu; i a Pukenui, i a Pukeiti; i a Awanui, i a Awaroa, i a Awarua, i a Awatoru. Ina te ingoa Whangaroa, ki Hāmoa ko Fagaloa, ki Tahiti ko Fa‘aroa, ki Rapanui ko Hangaroa, ki Hawaii ko Hanaloa (ko Pearl Harbour).

Ngā tauhou

Nō te taenga ki Aotearoa ka huri haere ngā tūpuna o te iwi Māori, he tapatapa whenua te mahi. Waihoki, ka tapatapa ngā rangatira o Te Arawa i te whenua ki a rātou anō; kīia ai tēnei tikanga, he taunaha whenua. Mā te whakakuhu i tō rātou tipuna ki te ingoa o tētahi whenua, ka pakari atu ai te kokoraho o ngā uri whakaheke i taua whenua. Hei tauira, ko Te Kūreitanga-o-te-ihu-o-Tamatekapua, ko Te Takapū-o-Tapuika, ko Te Rotoruanui-a-Kahumatamomoe, ko Te Rotoiti-kite-a-Īhenga.

I tapaina ētahi wāhi hei whakamahara i ngā heke waka, ngā utanga, tae tonu atu ki ngā waka. Ko ngā tauira mō tēnei momo tapanga whenua ko: Ngā Rā-o-Kupe (he toka tū moana) i te kokoru o Palliser; Te Kupenga-o-Taramainuku (he matatāhuna) i te pūaha o Manukau; Te Kurī-a-Pāoa (he mātārae) kei Tūranganui-a-Kiwa; Ngā Kurī-a-Kupe kei Te Hokianga. E kī ana te kōrero, nā Kupe ngā motu kei Te Whanganui-a-Tara i taunaha mō āna tamariki, a Matiu rāua ko Mākaro.

Ki te hau te kōrero e mea ana, nā tō tipuna ngā awa, ngā roto, ngā maunga o tō rohe i auaha, ka nui atu ō take ki taua whenua. Hei tauira, nā te mīinga o Pāoa, ko te awa o Waipāoa. Takahia ai te roanga o Te Wai Pounamu e Rākaihautū me tana kō, he kerikeri i te whenua te mahi. I te mutunga, kua auaha ngā roto me ngā maunga.

Ngā ingoa mō te whenua nei

Ko te motu nui i te raki ka kīia ko Te Ika-a-Māui, ko Aotearoa rānei, ā, ko te motu nui i te tonga ka kīia ko Te Waka-a-Māui, ko Te Wai Pounamu, ko Te Wāhi Pounamu rānei. Tatū noa ki ēnei rā, ko Aotearoa te ingoa ka kapi ai ngā motu katoa. Heoi, i te rau tau atu i 1800 kīia ai tenei whenua ko Niu Tīreni, ko Aotearoa, ko Te Wai Pounamu rānei.

Te hunga pōkai whenua

He maha ngā kōrero a te Māori mō ngā tīpuna i tae ki Aotearoa kātahi ka torotoro haere ki te taunaha whenua mō ō rātou uri whakaheke. Tērā te tipuna a Kahupekapeka, i hīkoi atu i Kāwhia me te taunaha haere i ngā maunga, a Pirongia me Kakepuku i te uru, a Te Aroha i te raki, a Titiraupenga i te tonga – koia nei ngā paenga whenua o ngā iwi o Tainui. Waihoki, tērā a Tōhē o Te Tai Tokerau, i hīkoi mai i Kapowairua ki te rae o Maunganui kei te raki o Tākiwira. Neke atu i te 100 ngā wāhi nāna i whakaingoa.

Ka tapaina ngā ingoa o ngā tipuna, ngā pakanga, ngā mahi nui ki te whenua hei whakamaharatanga mō ngā whakatipuranga kei te piki ake.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rāwiri Taonui, 'Tapa whenua - Te hōpara me te tapa whenua', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/tapa-whenua/page-1 (accessed 20 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Rāwiri Taonui, i tāngia i te 24 Nov 2008