Labour leader and Prime Minister Helen Clark and Jim Anderton, leader of the coalition partner the Alliance, hold up their coalition agreement in 1999. This was the first time coalition partners adopted 'agree to disagree' procedures to manage policy differences. Such procedures lessened the chances of cabinet becoming publicly divided and running the risk of losing the confidence of the House of Representatives. It did not stop parties themselves from experiencing internal conflict – Jim Anderton left the Alliance to form a new party, the Progressives, in 2002.
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