In the absence of domestic servants, who were expensive, farmers’ wives did the cooking. Here Jessie Buckland mixes the Christmas cake in 1896, using a spoon and mixing bowl. The ingredients would probably have included hand-made butter from the family’s cows and eggs from her own fowls, and she would have baked the cake in a wood-fired range which required regular stoking.
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Hocken Library, University of Otago
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