Kōrero: Muriwhenua

Whārangi 4. Ngā tūtakitanga tuatahi ki te Pākehā

Ngā whakaahua

Te Tiriti o Waitangi

I te 28 o Āperira 1840, e 61 ngā rangatira o Muriwhenua i haina i te Tiriti o Waitangi i Kaitāia. Nā Rūtene Kāwana Hopihona te kōrero, mā te tiriti ngā tāngata whai Pākehā e whakahaere ā, mā te tiriti anō e tiaki ngā whenua me ngā pānga o te Māori. Kāore ia i whāki atu ka riro i te Pākehā te rangatiratanga o tēnei whenua. I whakahuatia e Nōpera Pana-kareao ōna whakaaro ki tēnei kōrero, ‘Ko te atarau o te whenua i riro i te Kuini, ko te tinana o te whenua i waiho ki ngā Māori’. Kotahi tau i muri mai ka hurihia pēneihia e ia tana kōrero, “ko te tinana o te whenua kei te Kuini, ko te atarau anake i mahue ki te Māori”.

Ngā rironga whenua

I tāmia kino a Muriwhenua e ngā ture whenua Māori a te Karauna. Nā ngā rangahau a te Karauna ki ngā hokonga whenua a te Pākehā i mua i te hainatanga i te tiriti, ka riro i te Pākehā te 8,100 heketea whenua. Ka tangohia anōtia e te Karauna ngā whenua 10,500 heketea mōna anō ki raro i te ture o Ngā Whenua Āpiti. Kia tae ki te tau 1865, kua riro atu anō te 113,000 heketea. Nō te tau 1890, kua riro hoki te 31,000 heketea ki te kāwanatanga. Nō konei kua kore e rahi ngā whenua o Muriwhenua e taea ai e ngā iwi te noho me te whai i ngā tikanga a ō rātou tīpuna.

Muriwhenua i ēnei rā

I te tau 2013 neke atu i te e 40,000 ngā tāngata o ngā iwi o Muriwhenua kei Aotearoa puta noa. Nā te nui o ngā whenua i riro me te pēhi o ngā hapori, ngā tikanga, te ōhanga me ngā mahi tōrangapū a te Māori, tae atu ki te hekenga nui a te Māori ki ngā tāone atu i te tau 1950, e paku iho i te 12,000 ngā uri o Muriwhenua e noho ana ki te rohe o Te Tai Tokerau i te tau 2013.   Ko te nuinga o rātou kei waho ake o te rohe e noho ana, ina rā e 18,000 ngā uri whakaheke kei te rohe o Tāmaki-makaurau e noho ana.

Ngā take tiriti

Mai anō i te tekau tau atu i 1960, he tūranga nui tō ngā iwi o Muriwhenua ki ngā take tōrangapū a te Tiriti o Waitangi. Nā Whina Cooper i ārahi te hīkoi mai i Te Hāpua ki te whare paremata i te tau 1975 mō ngā whenua Māori te take.

He tūranga nui anō tō ngā iwi o Muriwhenua i ngā kerēme ki mua i te aroaro o te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi; atu i te tau 1994 he maha ngā kerēme i whakatakotoria e rātou. He wāhi nui tō te Pūrongo Hī Ika a Muriwhenua (1988), i hua mai ai te whakataunga o 1992 mō ngā kerēme a te Māori ki ngā rawa hao ika kei te moana uriuri. Nā te Pūrongo mō Ngā Whenua o Muriwhenua (1997) i whakatakoto ngā kōrero mō te rironga o ngā whenua me ngā tūkinotanga ka pā ki te iwi. I ngā whiriwhiringa tuatahitanga, i kōrerohia kia taka ngā whakataunga ki raro i Te Rūnanga o Muriwhenua. Heoi, nō muri i ngā tautohetohe i waenganui i ngā iwi, ka whakaritea e tēnā iwi me tēnā iwi tōna ake whakataunga.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rāwiri Taonui, 'Muriwhenua - Ngā tūtakitanga tuatahi ki te Pākehā', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/muriwhenua/page-4 (accessed 23 September 2019)

Story by Rāwiri Taonui, published 8 Feb 2005, updated 22 Mar 2017