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Muriwhenua tribes

by  Rāwiri Taonui

Ko te takiwā o Muriwhenua te ‘muringa o te whenua’. Koinei te take whakaingoatia ai te rohe nei. Ko ngā whenua o taua rohe tae atu ki te whaitua raki o te whenua, a Te Rēinga, te hiku o te ika. E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho koinei te wāhi o Te Rerenga Wairua. Inā te whānui o ngā kōrero nei. Kei roto i ngā hītori mō ngā iwi e ono kōrerohia ai te rironga atu me te hokinga o ngā whenua o ngā iwi nei ki a rātou.


Ancestors

He ingoa whakahuihui a Muriwhenua mō ngā iwi e ono: a Ngāti Kurī rātou ko Ngāi Takoto, ko Te Pātū, ko Ngāti Kahu, ko Te Aupōuri, ko Te Rarawa.

Te Hiku-o-te-Ika

E noho ana ngā iwi o Muriwhenua ki ngā whenua e totoro atu i te paeroa o Mangamuka ki te raki ki Te Rēinga. Kei ngā kōrero paki e mea ana koinei te hiku o te ika i hīia e Māui i te hōhonutanga o te moana. Ka kōrero ana ngā kaumātua o Muriwhenua, ahakoa kei Te Whanganui-a-Tara te ūpoko o te ika a Māui, haere noa ai te ūpoko ki ngā wāhi tērā ka whakaaetia e te hiku!

Te hurainatanga a Kupe

E kī ana a Ngāti Kurī nā te kaiurungi nui nā Kupe te whenua i hura. I pōhēhē ia i kite a ia i tētahi tohorā, engari ko te maunga o Houhora kē. Noho rawa ai te iwi o Kupe ki ngā whenua atu i Te Rēinga ki te whanga o Pārengarenga. Nā Kupe te whenua i taunaha atu i Te Ara Wairua ki Te Rēinga.

Kei roto i ngā kōrero tuku iho a Ngāti Kahu, i nohonoho a Kupe ki te kūrae o Karikari, te onepū o Tokerau, te whanga o Whangaroa me te whanga o Matauri hoki. E kōrerohia ana nā Te Aukānapanapa a Kupe i ārahi ki uta ki te take o te maunga o Whakarārā kei te whanga o Matauri. E whakaae tahi ana a Te Aupōuri me Te Rarawa, i tau a Kupe ki Hokianga ā, i tana hokinga ki Hawaiki ka whakaarahia e ia ngā tai āki kia tukia te tai hauāuru o Te Tai Tokerau, o te Oneroa-a-Tōhē.

Tūmatahina

I te wā e whakapaeangatia ana te pā o Muriwhenua e pau haere ana ngā kai o te iwi. Nō konei ka tohu a Tūmatahina ki te iwi kia hangaia ngā whakapakoko tangata ki te raupō, ka whakatūtūhia ki ngā tūwatawata o te pā. I muri mai ka whiria e rātou te harakeke hei taura, ka herea ki tētahi toka kei uta. Nō te otinga o ngā mahi ka tono a Tūmatahina kia heke takitahi tōna iwi mā te taura, kia takahia ngā tapuwae o te mea o mua e ngā mea o muri. Nā konei i tinihangatia ai e rātou te ope whakaeke, e pōhēhē ana rātou kei roto tonu te iwi rā i tō rātou pā.

He waiata tā Muriwhenua e whakanui ana i tēnei mahi:

Ruia, ruia, tahia, tahia,
Kia hemo te kākoakoa,
Kia herea mai i te kawau korokī.
Kia tātaki mai i roto i te pūkorokoro, whaikoro,
Te kūaka, he kūaka mārangaranga,
Tahi manu i tau ki te tāhuna, tau atu, tau atu, tau atu!

He tohu te kūaka mō ngā iwi o Muriwhenua. Hei te kaupeka o te kōanga heke ai te kūaka i te tuakoi raki, kia hui ki ngā whanga o te rohe o Muriwhenua. Hei te ngahuru ka wehe tahi atu rātou, pērā i te iwi o Tūmatahina i puta i tō rātou pā.

Reitu rāua ko Reipae

E rongonuihia ana ngā māhanga a Reitū rāua ko Reipae i roto i ngā kōrero a te Māori. Nō te haerenga o te rangatira nō Whāngāpē i a Ueoneone ki Waikato ka taka tōna manawa mō ngā tuāhine nei, ā, moea rawa e Ueoneone ngā tokorua nei.

Ka tukuna e Ueoneone tana manu ki te rohe o Waikato ki te tiki i ngā māhanga kia whakahokia ki te tai tokerau. Heoi nō te paenga o te manu rā ki te takiwā e tata ana ki te wāhi kei reira te tāone o Whāngārei ināianei, ka mate aroha atu a Reipae ki tētahi rangatira o reira, ko Ōtāhuhupōtiki tōna ingoa; waihoki ka moe rāua. Ko tētahi tikanga mō te ingoa o Whāngārei ko Te Whanga-a-Reipae.

Ka haere tonu a Reitū ki Whāngāpē ka moe i a Ueoneone kia puta ki waho he māhanga kōtiro, ko Kauae rāua ko Tawakeiti. I moe rāua tahi i a Tūpoto, ā, ka puta i a rātou ngā iwi katoa e noho ana ki tua raki o Tāmaki.

Tōhē

He rangatira a Tōhē nō Ngāti Kahu. He tipuna nui a ia nō roto i a Muriwhenua. I noho ia ki Maunga Piko ki te whanga o Kapowairua. Ka moe tana tamāhine a Rāninikura i tētahi tangata nō Kaipara rā anō, kei te wāhi e pātata ana ki Tākiwira. Kia kaumātua a ia ka puta te ōhākī a Tōhē kei te haere ia ki te tonga kia kite i tana tamāhine i mua i tōna matenga. Nā tona kaumātuatanga ka tono tōna iwi kia kaua ia e haere. Ka whakahoki a Tōhē:

Whakarua i te hau e taea te karo.
Whakarua i taku tamāhine, e kore e taea te karo
Taea Hokianga ā hea ā hea,
Ko tā koutou mahi e kapo ake ai, ko taku wairua.

Nō tēnei kōrero ka takea mai te ingoa a Kapowairua, te ingoa tūturu o Spirits Bay. Ka heke a Tōhē ki te tonga, ka whakaingoatia e ia ngā wāhi 100 ki te tai hauāuru. I mate a ia ki Whāngaiariki kei te pari o Maunganui i mua i tana taenga ki te kāinga o tana tamāhine. Ka tū ngā wāhi i tapaina e Tōhē hei whakamaumaharatanga mō tēnei haerenga mokemoke āna. Ko te ingoa rongonui rawa atu o ēnei taunahatanga, ko Te Oneroa-a-Tōhē.

Te Rēinga

Ko tētahi ingoa mō Te Rēinga, ko Te Rerenga Wairua. Koinei tētahi o ngā wāhi tapu rawa a te Māori. E rua ngā ara e haere atu nā ki Te Rēinga ki te whaitua raki rawa o Te Ika-a-Māui. Ko tētahi ara ka tīmata ki te tonga, ka rere mā te Oneroa-a-Tōhē, ko tētahi atu huarahi ka tīmata ki te whanga o Kapowairua. Ka whakahui ngā wairua ki Te Rēinga kātahi ka ruku ki te wai; i te taenga ki Manawatāwhi ka puea, hei reira poroporoaki ai rātou ki ngā tāngata e mahue nei e rātou. Nō konei ka huri rātou ka ahu ki te kāinga tūturu, ki Hawaiki.

Te Houtaewa

Hei uri a Te Houtaewa mā te rangatira nui o Te Aupōuri mā Te Ikanui. He māia rongonui a ia. Nō tētahi mahinga i tū ai ia ka whakatakotoria ko Hukatere hei paenga whenua ki waenganui i a Te Rarawa me Te Aupōuri. Tērā tētahi wā i omangia e ia te roanga o te one mai i Te Kao ki Ahipara, ki te tango i ngā kete nui, kikī ana i ngā kūmara a Te Rarawa. Ka taki whāia ia e ngā iwi o reira, ā, ahakoa ngā kūmara e kawea ana e ia, kore rawa a ia i mau.

Nō muri ka arahina e Te Houtaewa a Te Aupōuri ki tētahi pakanga nui ki Hukatere. Ko Ngāpuhi me Te Rarawa te hoariri i raro i te awe o ngā rangatira a Hongi Hika rāua ko Te Pōroa. I tēnei pakanga, ka tukuna a Ngāruhe - te mōrehu tama a Whēru te rangatira o Te Aupōuri - kia hopungia a ia e Ngāpuhi, kia whakamamaetia, kia patua, e puta ai ōna whanaunga. I tēnei pakanga ka pūhia a Te Houtaewa e Hongi Hika, ka whāia, ka mau, ka patua ki Pukenui, e pātata ana ki te whanga o Houhora. Mai i taua wā ka noho ko Hukatere te paenga whenua ki waenganui i a Te Rarawa rāua ko Te Aupōuri.


Ngāti Kurī, Ngāi Takoto, Te Pātū and Ngāti Kahu

Ngāti Kurī

Ka whakapapa mai a Ngāti Kurī i a Pōhurihanga, te rangatira o te waka o Kurahaupō. I ū te waka nei ki Takapaukura / Wākura, he wāhi e pātata ana ki te Rerenga Wairua. I tō rātou taunga, ka kīia taua wāhi e Pōhurihanga, ‘te Muri-o-te-whenua’ – nō reira ahu mai ai te ingoa mō ngā iwi o Muriwhenua.

Ka moe a Pōhurihanga i a Maieke, ka nōhia e ō rāua uri ngā whenua o Kapowairua, o te whanga o Pārengarenga, o Murimotu. I hūnuku tō rāua tamāhine a Muriwhenua, ki Karikari, kia moe i a Rongokako o te waka o Tākitimu.

Kei roto i ngā kōrero tuku iho e whakamārama ana i te āhua i tapaina ai te iwi ki a Ngāti Kurī. I tā rātou whakaekenga i runga i tētahi pā, kīhai te pā i horo. Nō konei kua hangaia e rātou he tohorā mai i o rātou kahu waero ka whakatūhia ki runga i te tātahi. Nā te kitenga o te pā i ngā tohorā i runga i te tātahi kua puta mai te iwi ki te apu i ngā kōiwi me ōna kiko. I te putanga mai ka mau rātou i te kokoti a te iwi.

Tērā te kōrero mō te tangihanga a Ihutara ki te moutere o Motukurī ki te whanga o Pārengarenga. I te wā o te hākari ka horahia ngā kurī hei kai.

Ngāi Takoto rāua ko Te Pātū

Ka whakapapa mai anō ngā iwi o Ngāi Takoto me Te Pātū i te waka o Kurahaupō. E rua ngā wāhine i moea e te uri whakaheke o Pōhurihanga e Tūwhakatere. Ki tana wahine tuatahi a Tūterangi-a-tōhīa ka whānau mai tā rāua tama ko Popota; ka tū ia i ōna rā hei tipuna nui nō Te Pātū. Nā Tūwhakatere rāua ko tana wahine tuarua a Tūpoia, ka whānau mai tā rāua tama, ko Hoka.

I tapaina ai te ingoa o Ngāi Takoto i te hingatanga a Hoka i roto i te pakanga. He pērā rawa te pōuri a Tūwhakatere ka takoto ia ki reira tonu ka mate.

Ngāti Kahu

I takea mai te ingoa o te iwi i te tamāhine a Tūmoana i a Kahutianui-o-te-rangi. Ko Tūmoana te rangatira o te waka a Tinana. Ka hoki ia ki Hawaiki, ka whakaingoatia anōtia e tana irāmutu e Te Parata te waka, ko Māmaru.

Nō te hokinga o Māmaru ki te rohe o Muriwhenua, ko te whenua i kitea tuatahitia e rātou, ko te maunga o Pūwheke. Ka moe a Te Parata i a Kahutianui-o-te-rangi, ka nōhia e ō rāua uri ngā whanga o Rangaunu me Tokerau. Ka hōrapa ngā uri ki te tonga ki te whanga o Whangaroa, ki te whanga o Matauri me Te Tī, ki reira moe ai ki ngā uri o Puhi, te rangatira o te waka a Mataatua.

Ko Tamatea te rangatira o te waka a Tākitimu, i pae ki Awanui kei te whanga o Rangaunu; (he hononga tātai nui tenei; tērā te wā i mōhiotia a Ngāti Kahu, ko Ngāi Tamatea.) Ko ētahi atu waka nui ki a Ngāti Kahu ko:

  • Riukakara, i tau ki Mangonui, ko Pāoa te rangatira o runga
  • Waipapa, i tau ki te kūrae o Karikari, ko ngā rangatira o runga ko Kaiwhetū rāua ko Wairere.
  • Ruakaramea, ko ōna rangatira ko Moehuri rāua ko Tukiata (e ai kī tētahi atu kōrero ko Te Uriparāoa rāua ko Te Papawi kē ngā rangatira).

I ōna rā, he iwi rongonui a Ngāti Kahu mō ā rātou marau i ngā iwi o te takutai me a rātou mahi tauhokohoko ki ngā wāhi tawhiti, tae rawa atu ki te ngahere o Waipoua, ki Whāngārei, ki Mahurangi, ki kō atu hoki.


Te Aupōuri and Te Rarawa

He maha ngā waka o Te Aupōuri me Te Rarawa:

  • Ko Matawhaorua te waka ko Kupe te rangatira
  • Ko Kurahaupō te waka ko Pōhurihanga te rangatira
  • Ko Ngātokimatawhaorua, ko Nukutawhiti te rangatira
  • Ko Māhuhu-ki-te-rangi, ko Rongomai rāua ko Whakatau ngā rangatira.

Ko te waka matua o Te Aupōuri ko Māmari, ko Ruanui te tangata. Noho rawa ngā uri o Ruanui ki te tai hauāuru o Te Tai Tokerau.

E whakanuia ana e Te Rarawa tā rātou whakahekenga mai i te waka o Tinana, i ārahina e Tūmoana. Ka hōrapa ngā uri o Tūmoana ki te raki o Hokianga, ahu whakaterāwhiti ana ki Maunga Taniwha. Nāwai ā, ka hoki a Tūmoana ki Hawaiki, ka whakarere mai ki Tauroa ko tana tama a Tamahotu rāua ko tana tamāhine a Kahutianui-o-te-rangi.

E kīia ana i huri taiāwhio te tipuna o Te Aupōuri me Te Rarawa a Mirupōkai i Te Ika-a-Māui mā runga i te waka a Mataatua.

Te Aupōuri

Ko Ngāti Ruānui te ingoa tūturu o Te Aupōuri. He hononga tata ō ratou ki a Te Rarawa, nā te moenga o Waimirirangi rāua ko Kairewa. He tipuna tā rāua tamāhine a Haere-ki-te-rā nō ngā rangatira o Ngāti Ruānui, a Whēru rāua ko Te Ikanui. Ko Pare tētahi atu tamāhine; ko rātou ko tana tāne a Te Rēinga, ko tana tungāne a Tamatea ētahi o ngā tīpuna nui o te iwi i mua i a Te Rarawa.

Kei ngā whanga o Whāngāpē me Herekino te rohe o Ngāti Ruānui. Nāwai ā, ka tutū te puehu i waenganui ki ngā huānga a Ngāti Te Rēinga rātou ko Ngāti Kairewa, ko Ngāti Manawa, ko Ngāti Te Aewa. E kaha ana te tū o ēnei iwi i ō rātou kāinga i Motutī, i Whakarapa, i Motukauri; ko enei kāinga kei ngā tātahi i te raki o Hokianga.

He maha ngā pakanga i waenganui i ngā iwi nei ki ngā whanga o Whāngāpē o Herekino, tae atu ki Ahipara me Hukatere kei Te Oneroa-a-Tōhē. I tētahi o ēnei pakanga i whakapaea a Ikanui rātou ko Whēru mā i roto i tō rātou pā a Pawarenga, kei Whāngāpē. I tētahi pō ka tahuna rātou ngā taputapu o te pā kia rere te au. Mā te au pōuri nei i puta ai o rātou ihu. Mai i tēra wā ka mōhiotia a Ngāti Ruānui, ko Te Aupōuri.

Te Rarawa

I ahu mai te ingoa o Te Rarawa i tētahi mahi i ngā tātahi i te whanga o Kaipara. Tērā tētahi ariki tapairu ko Te Ripo, i whakamatea e tētahi taua nō Kaipara. I arahina e Ngāmotu te taua rānaki mate, ka whāia ngā kaikōhuru ki te taha tonga o te whanga o Kaipara. Heoi, ka rere te hoariri, ka whakawhiti i te whanga kia tae ki tō rātou pā ki Okika. Ka heua a rātou karakia e pohepohe ai ngā wai o te whanga e kore ai e taea e te taua o Ngāmotu te whakawhiti atu.

Nā tō rātou pōkaikaha, ka toro te taua o Ngāmotu ki roto i tētahi urupā kei ngā takutai o te whanga, ka hahua ngā kōiwi o tētahi tohunga. Ka tahuna ngā kōiwi, ka whiua ngā pungarehu ki te whanga kia rokia ngā wai. Ka apungia hoki e rātou tētahi wāhi o te tinana. Nō te kitenga o te kuia a Toko i ēnei mahi ka kī, ‘Kātahi anō te iwi kai rarawa!’ me te kōrero nei ‘Te Rarawakaiwhare!’ Nō konei ka karangahia te iwi nei, ko Te Rarawa.


European contact

Te Tiriti o Waitangi

I te 28 o Āperira 1840, e 61 ngā rangatira o Muriwhenua i haina i te Tiriti o Waitangi i Kaitāia. Nā Rūtene Kāwana Hopihona te kōrero, mā te tiriti ngā tāngata whai Pākehā e whakahaere ā, mā te tiriti anō e tiaki ngā whenua me ngā pānga o te Māori. Kāore ia i whāki atu ka riro i te Pākehā te rangatiratanga o tēnei whenua. I whakahuatia e Nōpera Pana-kareao ōna whakaaro ki tēnei kōrero, ‘Ko te atarau o te whenua i riro i te Kuini, ko te tinana o te whenua i waiho ki ngā Māori’. Kotahi tau i muri mai ka hurihia pēneihia e ia tana kōrero, “ko te tinana o te whenua kei te Kuini, ko te atarau anake i mahue ki te Māori”.

Ngā rironga whenua

I tāmia kino a Muriwhenua e ngā ture whenua Māori a te Karauna. Nā ngā rangahau a te Karauna ki ngā hokonga whenua a te Pākehā i mua i te hainatanga i te tiriti, ka riro i te Pākehā te 8,100 heketea whenua. Ka tangohia anōtia e te Karauna ngā whenua 10,500 heketea mōna anō ki raro i te ture o Ngā Whenua Āpiti. Kia tae ki te tau 1865, kua riro atu anō te 113,000 heketea. Nō te tau 1890, kua riro hoki te 31,000 heketea ki te kāwanatanga. Nō konei kua kore e rahi ngā whenua o Muriwhenua e taea ai e ngā iwi te noho me te whai i ngā tikanga a ō rātou tīpuna.

Muriwhenua i ēnei rā

I te tau 2013 neke atu i te e 40,000 ngā tāngata o ngā iwi o Muriwhenua kei Aotearoa puta noa. Nā te nui o ngā whenua i riro me te pēhi o ngā hapori, ngā tikanga, te ōhanga me ngā mahi tōrangapū a te Māori, tae atu ki te hekenga nui a te Māori ki ngā tāone atu i te tau 1950, e paku iho i te 12,000 ngā uri o Muriwhenua e noho ana ki te rohe o Te Tai Tokerau i te tau 2013.   Ko te nuinga o rātou kei waho ake o te rohe e noho ana, ina rā e 18,000 ngā uri whakaheke kei te rohe o Tāmaki-makaurau e noho ana.

Ngā take tiriti

Mai anō i te tekau tau atu i 1960, he tūranga nui tō ngā iwi o Muriwhenua ki ngā take tōrangapū a te Tiriti o Waitangi. Nā Whina Cooper i ārahi te hīkoi mai i Te Hāpua ki te whare paremata i te tau 1975 mō ngā whenua Māori te take.

He tūranga nui anō tō ngā iwi o Muriwhenua i ngā kerēme ki mua i te aroaro o te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi; atu i te tau 1994 he maha ngā kerēme i whakatakotoria e rātou. He wāhi nui tō te Pūrongo Hī Ika a Muriwhenua (1988), i hua mai ai te whakataunga o 1992 mō ngā kerēme a te Māori ki ngā rawa hao ika kei te moana uriuri. Nā te Pūrongo mō Ngā Whenua o Muriwhenua (1997) i whakatakoto ngā kōrero mō te rironga o ngā whenua me ngā tūkinotanga ka pā ki te iwi. I ngā whiriwhiringa tuatahitanga, i kōrerohia kia taka ngā whakataunga ki raro i Te Rūnanga o Muriwhenua. Heoi, nō muri i ngā tautohetohe i waenganui i ngā iwi, ka whakaritea e tēnā iwi me tēnā iwi tōna ake whakataunga.


Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō Muriwhenua (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

Ngāi Takoto

  • tatauranga o 1991: 186
  • tatauranga o 2001: 489
  • tatauranga o 2006: 774
  • tatauranga o 2013: 1,113

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Te Tai Tokerau: 495
  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 369

Ngāti Kahu

  • tatauranga o 1991: 4,275
  • tatauranga o 2001: 6,957
  • tatauranga o 2006: 8,313
  • tatauranga o 2013: 8,580

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 3,747
  • Te Tai Tokerau: 2,733

Ngāti Kurī

  • tatauranga o 1991: 1,395
  • tatauranga o 2001: 4,647
  • tatauranga o 2006: 5,757
  • tatauranga o 2013: 6,492

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 2,781
  • Te Tai Tokerau: 2,040

Te Aupōuri

  • tatauranga o 1991: 6,720
  • tatauranga o 2001: 7,848
  • tatauranga o 2006: 9,333
  • tatauranga o 2013: 8,700

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 3,828
  • Te Tai Tokerau: 2,109

Te Rarawa

  • tatauranga o 1991: 5,919
  • tatauranga o 2001: 11,526
  • tatauranga o 2006: 14,895
  • tatauranga o 2013: 16,512

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 7,224
  • Te Tai Tokerau: 4,881

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Rāwiri Taonui, 'Muriwhenua tribes', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/muriwhenua/print (accessed 3 April 2020)

He kōrero nā Rāwiri Taonui, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 22 Mar 2017