Kōrero: Kai Pākehā

Whārangi 2. Te poaka, te rīwai

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā kai nui

Mai anō, ko te poaka me te rīwai ngā kai nui nā te Pākehā i mau ki Aotearoa.

Rīwai

Nā te rite o te āhua me te whakatipu ki te kūmara, tere te Māori ki te tango i te rīwai hei kai māna. I tana whakatakanga i ngā rīwai tōmua rawa ki ētahi Māori i Tōtaranui, whakahuatia ai e Kāpene Kuki te kupu ‘coumalla’ mō te rīwai.

Ko te mea nui i te rīwai, ka taea te whakatipu ki ngā whenua mātao kīhai te kūmara e tipu, ngā whenua pērā i Te Ara-a-Kiwa, i Te Urewera. He pai te tipu o te rīwai, huhua ana. Ko tētahi mea hoki, he tapu te māra kūmara. Waihoki, ka ūhia te tapu ki runga i te rīwai. Nāwai, ka noa te mahi whakatipu rīwai, taea noatia ai e te wahine, e te pononga te whakatipu rīwai. Nō konei ka tipu, ka mātotoru ngā hapori.

Poaka

I mua i te heringa mai o te poaka, ko te kurī me te kiore anake ngā whakangote hei kai mā te Māori. Whāia, he mārama te kite atu i te pai rawa atu o te poaka – ‘tere te hōrapa, tere te tipu, ka kai i ngā mea katoa’.1

He poaka, he rīwai rānei māu?

Atu i 1814 ki 1827 ka piki te utu mō te pū kotahi mai i te 150 kete rīwai me ngā poaka e waru, ki te 200 kete rīwai e 15 poaka rānei. Nāwai ā, ka tau te utu ki te 120 kete rīwai, e 10 poaka rānei. I te tekau tau atu i 1840, e 40 ngā poaka mō te hōiho kotahi. Tērā tētahi iwi i Te Moana-a-Toi, i hoko i tētahi kaipuke mō te e 500 poaka.

He moni hou

He mea nui ki te Māori te tukutuku taonga i waenganui i ngā iwi, ngā hapū. Nā konei pea hōrapa ai te poaka me te rīwai.

Tauhokohoko

Atu i 1803, kua tīmata te tauhokohoko a te Māori i te rīwai, te poaka, te kānga, aha atu. Heoi, whai muri i te whakaekenga o te kaipuke Boyd ki Whangaroa i te tau 1809 me te patunga o ngā tāngata katoa o runga, kīhai te Pākehā i hiahia kia tauhokohoko me te Māori. Kia tū rā anō te mīhana tuatahi i te tau 1814 ki Pēwhairangi i raro i a Te Mātenga, i raro hoki i te mana o te rangatira o Ngāpuhi rā a Ruatara, kātahi anō ka āhua pai haere. Tino hiahia a Ruatara ki te whakatipu witi hei whāngai i tōna iwi, hei hoko hoki ki tāwāhi. Atu i te tau 1814, ka tipu nui ngā māra i Pēwhairangi, hei whāngai ki ngā kaipuke ka tau. Ka huri te aronga o ngā iwi ki ngā tipu kai hou pērā i te rīwai.

Te rīwai, te pū, te riri

Atu i te tau 1818, ka tipu te hiahia mō ngā taonga rino a te Pākehā, pērā i te pū. Nō tana hokinga mai i Ingarangi, ka mauria mai e Hongi Hika o Ngāpuhi te tini pū. I konei ka tīmata tana rīriri ki ētahi atu iwi.

He pai te rīwai hei kai mā te taua e haere ana i te ara o Tūmatauenga, hāunga te mea iti noa ka taea te kawe i ngā haerenga roa. I tua atu, ka taea te tauhokohoko te rīwai mō te pū. Nā te pū ka huri katoa te āhua whawhai o te Māori. Nā te pū ka tini ngā herehere a ngā rangatira pērā i a Hongi Hika, i a Te Rauparaha hei aha, hei whakatipu i te harakeke, hei hārō i te muka.

Ngā manaakitanga ki te tangata

I te rau tau atu i 1800, ka noho te poaka me te rīwai ki waenganui pū i ngā hākari nui a te Māori. Mō ngā kai i tētahi hui i te tau 1881, ‘pukepuke ana ngā kete rīwai e 2,756, ngā mangō e 500, ka hia rau poaka; hauwhā maero te roa o te tahua’.2

Nāwai ā, ka whai wāhi nui ētahi momo rīwai ki te ao Māori, kīia ai ēnei, he rīwai Māori. Tae rawa ki te rau tau atu i 1900, he wāhi nui tonu ki te poaka me te rīwai hei whāngai tangata. Hei tauira, he tino kai ki te Māori te wheua poaka me te pūhā.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. James Belich, Making peoples: a history of the New Zealanders: from Polynesian settlement to the end of the nineteenth century. Auckland: Penguin, 2001, p.145. › Back
  2. Claudia Orange, The Treaty of Waitangi. Wellington: Allen & Unwin, Port Nicholson Press with assistance from the Historical Publications Branch, Dept. of Internal Affairs, 1987, p. 200. › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Hazel Petrie, 'Kai Pākehā - Te poaka, te rīwai', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/kai-pakeha/page-2 (accessed 22 October 2019)

Story by Hazel Petrie, published 24 Nov 2008