Skip to main content
Logo: Te Ara - The Online Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Print all pages now.

Kai Pākehā – introduced foods

by  Hazel Petrie

Tere tonu te Māori ki te kapo ake i ngā kai he mea mau ki Aotearoa e te Pākehā - te whakatipu rīwai, te tauhokohoko poaka ki iwi kē, te whakatō witi me te whakatū mira. I ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau atu i 1800, ko te poaka me te rīwai hei moni tauhokohoko.


Early introductions

Ngā tipu hou

He nui ngā tipu i mauria ki Aotearoa e ngā kaihōpara Pākehā tōmua. Nō te marama o Tīhema i te tau 1769, ka whakarerea iho e te kaihōpara Wīwī e Kāpene Jean Francois Marie de Surville he witi, he pī, he raihi ki Aotearoa. Whāia, nō te tau 1772 ka whakatō e Marc Joseph Marion du Fresne he witi, he kānga, he rīwai, aha atu ki te moutere o Moturua i Pēwhairangi.

Nō te tau 1773 ka whakatō a Kāpene Kuki rāua ko te kaiurungi a Tobias Furneaux i tētahi māra kī ana i te rīwai, te kāroti, te uhitea, te kāpeti, te rīki, te rikiroa, te pahiri, te uhikura, te panikakā, te kano pīni, te pīni takihi (kidney bean), te pī, te keha me te witi. Nō taua tau anō, i te takiwā o Te Kauae-o-Māui, ka hoatu e Kuki he purapura witi, pīni, pī, kāpeti, keha, riki, kāroti, uhitea, uwhi ki te rangatira a Tuanui.

Ngā tipu i Te Wai Pounamu

I te hekenga tuatoru o Kuki ki Aotearoa i te tau 1777, ka hoki a ia ki te mātaki i ngā māra i whakatōkia e rātou ko āna kauhoe; heoi, kua kore katoa. Hāunga, i toe ētahi tipu kāpeti, riki, rikiroa, purslane, uhikura, rīwai ki ngā māra nā Furneaux i whakatō.

Tae rawa ki te tau 1810 i te whakatō ngā iwi o Te Ara-a-Kiwa i te rīwai hei hoko. Tērā pea i ahu mai ēnei rīwai i ngā māra i whakatōkia ki Tōtaranui, ka hōpara mā ngā pūnaha a Ngāi Tahu ki ngā moka o Te Wai Pounamu. I te tau 1820, ka kite a Bellingshausen, te kaihōpara nō Rūhia, i te Māori e whakatipu rīwai ana ki Tōtaranui. Tipu noa ai te kāpeti i te takiwā.

Ngā tipu i Te Ika-a-Māui

Tatū ki te tau 1801, kua tipu te rīwai ki Parawai; tae ki te tau 1805 e hokona ana he rīwai ki Pēwhairangi. I ahu mai pea ēnei rīwai i te māra o Marion du Fresne i Pēwhairangi, i ngā purapura rānei he mea tuku mai e Rūtene Kāwana Phillip King o te moutere o Norfolk i te tau 1793.

Tatū ki te tau 1807, kua hōrapa te kāpeti ki ngā moka o Te Tai Tokerau. Ko te whakapae i ahu mai ngā kāpeti tōmua o Te Tai Rāwhiti i ērā nā Kāpene Kuki i hoatu ki a Tuanui i tērā rau tau.

Ngā kararehe hou

I te tau 1769 ka hoatu e de Surville ētahi poaka e rua ki ngā Māori o Taipā i Te Tai Tokerau. I ngā hekenga tuarua, tuatoru a Kuki, he nui ngā poaka i tukuna ki Tōtaranui, ā, e whā i whakaratoa ki a Tuanui, rangatira o Te Matau-a-Māui. Ko te whakapae i ahu mai ngā poaka puihi o Te Wai Pounamu i a Kuki. Kīia ai ēnei poaka he kāpene kuki.

Nō te tau 1773 me te tau 1777 ka tukuna noatia e Kuki he nanekoti. I te tau 1773 anō, ka hoatu e ia ngā heihei e toru me ngā tame e rua ki ngā Māori o Tōtaranui. Nāna anō i whakarere ngā heihei e rua me ngā tame e toru ki Tōtaranui. I te paunga o taua tau o 1773, ka kite a Furneaux mā i ētahi heihei e paopao hua ana i te ngahere.

I te tau 1793 ka tuku a Kāwana King o te moutere o Norfolk i ngā poaka e 12 ki a Tukitahua, tetahi o ngā rangatira tokorua i kahakina ki Norfolk. Kia tae ki te tau 1795 kotahi anake te poaka e ora ana. Kātahi ka whakahoahoa a King ki a Te Pahi, ka tukua ngā poaka e 56 mā runga i ngā kaipuke e toru i ngā tau 1804 me 1805. Ko te whakapae, koia nei pea ngā poaka tōmua o Te Ika-a-Máui. Nō te tau 1805 ka tīmata te Māori ki te hoko poaka ki te Pākehā.

Ētahi atu kararehe, ētahi atu tipu

Nā Te Mātenga (Samuel Marsden) ngā hōiho me ngā kau tuatahi i mau ki Pēwhairangi i te tau 1814. Nō te tau 1819 ka kawea mai e tētahi kaihopu tohorā Amerikana he momo kūmara nui atu i ā te Māori. Tere kē te Māori ki te nanao atu, tapaina ai taua momo kūmara, ko merikana. Nō te tau 1793 ka tukuna e Kāwana King he kānga; tae rawa ki te tau 1816 makuru ana te tipu.

Nō te tau 1827 kua tīmata te tauhokohoko i te merengi me te pītiti ki ngā Pākehā kei Pēwhairangi.


Pigs and potatoes

Ngā kai nui

Mai anō, ko te poaka me te rīwai ngā kai nui nā te Pākehā i mau ki Aotearoa.

Rīwai

Nā te rite o te āhua me te whakatipu ki te kūmara, tere te Māori ki te tango i te rīwai hei kai māna. I tana whakatakanga i ngā rīwai tōmua rawa ki ētahi Māori i Tōtaranui, whakahuatia ai e Kāpene Kuki te kupu ‘coumalla’ mō te rīwai.

Ko te mea nui i te rīwai, ka taea te whakatipu ki ngā whenua mātao kīhai te kūmara e tipu, ngā whenua pērā i Te Ara-a-Kiwa, i Te Urewera. He pai te tipu o te rīwai, huhua ana. Ko tētahi mea hoki, he tapu te māra kūmara. Waihoki, ka ūhia te tapu ki runga i te rīwai. Nāwai, ka noa te mahi whakatipu rīwai, taea noatia ai e te wahine, e te pononga te whakatipu rīwai. Nō konei ka tipu, ka mātotoru ngā hapori.

Poaka

I mua i te heringa mai o te poaka, ko te kurī me te kiore anake ngā whakangote hei kai mā te Māori. Whāia, he mārama te kite atu i te pai rawa atu o te poaka – ‘tere te hōrapa, tere te tipu, ka kai i ngā mea katoa’.1

He poaka, he rīwai rānei māu?

Atu i 1814 ki 1827 ka piki te utu mō te pū kotahi mai i te 150 kete rīwai me ngā poaka e waru, ki te 200 kete rīwai e 15 poaka rānei. Nāwai ā, ka tau te utu ki te 120 kete rīwai, e 10 poaka rānei. I te tekau tau atu i 1840, e 40 ngā poaka mō te hōiho kotahi. Tērā tētahi iwi i Te Moana-a-Toi, i hoko i tētahi kaipuke mō te e 500 poaka.

He moni hou

He mea nui ki te Māori te tukutuku taonga i waenganui i ngā iwi, ngā hapū. Nā konei pea hōrapa ai te poaka me te rīwai.

Tauhokohoko

Atu i 1803, kua tīmata te tauhokohoko a te Māori i te rīwai, te poaka, te kānga, aha atu. Heoi, whai muri i te whakaekenga o te kaipuke Boyd ki Whangaroa i te tau 1809 me te patunga o ngā tāngata katoa o runga, kīhai te Pākehā i hiahia kia tauhokohoko me te Māori. Kia tū rā anō te mīhana tuatahi i te tau 1814 ki Pēwhairangi i raro i a Te Mātenga, i raro hoki i te mana o te rangatira o Ngāpuhi rā a Ruatara, kātahi anō ka āhua pai haere. Tino hiahia a Ruatara ki te whakatipu witi hei whāngai i tōna iwi, hei hoko hoki ki tāwāhi. Atu i te tau 1814, ka tipu nui ngā māra i Pēwhairangi, hei whāngai ki ngā kaipuke ka tau. Ka huri te aronga o ngā iwi ki ngā tipu kai hou pērā i te rīwai.

Te rīwai, te pū, te riri

Atu i te tau 1818, ka tipu te hiahia mō ngā taonga rino a te Pākehā, pērā i te pū. Nō tana hokinga mai i Ingarangi, ka mauria mai e Hongi Hika o Ngāpuhi te tini pū. I konei ka tīmata tana rīriri ki ētahi atu iwi.

He pai te rīwai hei kai mā te taua e haere ana i te ara o Tūmatauenga, hāunga te mea iti noa ka taea te kawe i ngā haerenga roa. I tua atu, ka taea te tauhokohoko te rīwai mō te pū. Nā te pū ka huri katoa te āhua whawhai o te Māori. Nā te pū ka tini ngā herehere a ngā rangatira pērā i a Hongi Hika, i a Te Rauparaha hei aha, hei whakatipu i te harakeke, hei hārō i te muka.

Ngā manaakitanga ki te tangata

I te rau tau atu i 1800, ka noho te poaka me te rīwai ki waenganui pū i ngā hākari nui a te Māori. Mō ngā kai i tētahi hui i te tau 1881, ‘pukepuke ana ngā kete rīwai e 2,756, ngā mangō e 500, ka hia rau poaka; hauwhā maero te roa o te tahua’.2

Nāwai ā, ka whai wāhi nui ētahi momo rīwai ki te ao Māori, kīia ai ēnei, he rīwai Māori. Tae rawa ki te rau tau atu i 1900, he wāhi nui tonu ki te poaka me te rīwai hei whāngai tangata. Hei tauira, he tino kai ki te Māori te wheua poaka me te pūhā.

Footnotes
  1. James Belich, Making peoples: a history of the New Zealanders: from Polynesian settlement to the end of the nineteenth century. Auckland: Penguin, 2001, p.145. › Back
  2. Claudia Orange, The Treaty of Waitangi. Wellington: Allen & Unwin, Port Nicholson Press with assistance from the Historical Publications Branch, Dept. of Internal Affairs, 1987, p. 200. › Back

Wheat

I te tīmatanga, kīhai te Māori i rata ki te whakatipu witi, he rerekē hoki nā te hātepe whakapaipai, he rerekē hoki te āhua o te witi ki ērā ngā tipu a te Māori. Ka rongo te rangatira rā a Ruatara mō te kaha hiahia i te witi ki Poihākena, whāia, nō te tau 1813 ka whakatōkia e ia te māra witi tuatahi ki Aotearoa. Kāore tonu ētahi atu rangatira i aro atu ki a ia, kia oti rā anō te witi te hurihuri. Whāia, kāhore i pau te rua tau ka whakaatu a Hongi Hika i tōna māra witi ki a Te Mātenga.

He pai te witi hei kai nā te mea ka taea te tiaki mō tētahi wā roa, ka taea hoki te tauhokohoko ki tāwāhi.

Mira mahi puehu parāoa

I te tekau tau atu i 1840 ka kake te taupori o ngā tāngata whai. Ka whakawhānui te Māori i āna mahi tipu witi hei hoko ki Ahitereiria. Nāwai ā, ka kitea te koretake o ngā mira ā-ringa. Nō ngā tau pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1840 ka huihui ngā iwi o Waikato, o Te Whanganui-a-Tara, o Taranaki, o Whanganui ki te hoko mira pana wai. He uaua te kawekawe taputapu i te tuawhenua me te tai hauāuru i mua i te takotoranga o ngā huarahi me ngā rerewē. Mā te hurihuri ka māmā iho te witi hei kawe ki ngā wāhi hokohoko pērā i a Tāmaki-makau-rau.

Te pāmu Māori me te noho Pākehā

I kaha te hāpai a ngā mihinare me ngā Pākehā i te whakatipu a te Māori i te witi, hāunga te mea kāore i pai ētahi whenua mō te whakatipu witi. I pēnei te whakaaro o tauiwi nā runga i te tokonga whakaaro Pākehā e mea ana me whakamahi te whenua. I tua atu, kei te Paipera Tapu ngā kōrero e hāpai ana i te parau, te witi me te tiringa o te oneone hei ara ki tētahi ao pai atu. Ka whakapono hoki te Pākehā, mā te pāmu a te Māori i te whenua, mai kore ka whakatū kāinga tūturu ia, kia noho wātea ai te nuinga o ngā whenua ki te hunga whai mai i tāwāhi.

He nui ngā tautokonga ki ngā iwi ka whakatipu witi, ka hanga mira pana wai rānei. Ka tuku pūtea taurewa a Kāwana Hōri Kerei ki ngā hapū maha i Te Ika-a-Maui hei hanga mira; ko tētahi here o ēnei pūtea taurewa, kia noho wātea ai ngā whenua Māori ki te Pākehā.

He mārama te kite atu a te Māori, he tohu te whakatipu witi ki te rangimārie. Nā whai anō he maha ngā iwi i hiahia ki te whakatūturu i te kotahitanga o 1840 ki te Karauna o Ingarangi mā te whakatipu witi. Heoi, i te tau 1856 ka paheke ngā utu mō ngā hua ahuwhenua, ka noho te maha o ngā hapori he nama moni anake te hua, kua kore hoki he wāriu o ō rātou mira.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Hazel Petrie, 'Kai Pākehā', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/kai-pakeha/print (accessed 22 October 2019)

Story by Hazel Petrie, published 24 Nov 2008