This table lists the consonant phonemes used in New Zealand English. They are very similar to those used in other forms of English.
Consonant phonemes are described by whether they are voiced or voiceless and by their usual place and manner of articulation (speech sound production). 'Voicing' refers to the vibration of vocal cords when the consonant is spoken – they vibrate for voiced consonants and not for voiceless consonants. 'Place of articulation' refers to the articulators involved in the production of a particular sound, such as lips, tongue and palate, and how these are used. 'Manner of articulation' refers to how the sound is produced and the way the airstream is changed as it passes through the vocal tract. The sample words are examples containing these consonants.
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Source: Jennifer Hay, Margaret Maclagan and Elizabeth Gordon, New Zealand English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008, p. 17.
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