Kōrero: Te Kurapa, Hikawera

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Te Kurapa, Hikawera

1907–1985

Nō Tūhoe; he toa whakarata hōiho, he tangata ahu whenua, he pou nō te Hāhi Ringatū

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Pou Temara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 2000.

I whānau a Hikawera Te Kurapa ki Rūātoki i te tau 1907. Ko tōna pāpā, ko Te Tuhera Te Kurapa (ko Te Kurapa Te Ao ētahi o ōna īngoa), he kaikuti hipi nō te hapū o Ngāti Tāwhaki; ko tōna māmā, ko Matahera Te Hira nō te hapū o Te Urewera, he mokopuna nā Te Whenuanui I, te rangatira o Tūhoe i haere rā rāua ko tana tamāhine, ko Te Mauniko (te whaea o Matahera) ki te pakanga ki te ope kāwanatanga i Ōrākau i te tau 1864. Whānau tonu mai a Hikawera, ka tangohia e Te Whenuanui II (Rangiteremauri rānei) māna hei whāngai. He pūmaharatanga tuatahi ōna, ka kite a Hikawera i te tūpāpaku o tana tipuna tuarua e amohia ana i runga i te marae o Te Whai-a-te-motu i Mātaatua, i Ruatāhuna: kua mate a Te Whenuanui I i te tau 1907, ā, i te tau 1910 i hahua mai i Te Waimako, i Waikaremoana, ka riro nā te hōiho me te pakihiwi tangata i waha ki tōna marae.

Ka tae ki te pakeke e tika ana mō te kura, ka waiho atu e Te Whenuanui II a Hikawera ki a Haniko Te Ao – he koroua ake nō Hikawera ki te taha o tōna pāpā – i Rūātoki. E whitu tau te pakeke o Hikawera, ka whakarērea te kura, ka oma ki Ruatāhuna ki ōna mātua whāngai. He haere nui tērā mā te tamaiti pērā noa te pakeke, te take e rua rā e haere ana mā runga i te hōiho. Ko te mate tuarua he kore kai. He tohu tēnei i te mārō o ōna whakaaro. I te tuheratanga o te kura i Ruatāhuna i te tau 1917, ko ia tētahi o ngā ākonga.

Ko ngā mahi a ngā pakeke o Hikawera i Ruatāhuna he karakia, he wānanga i ngā kupu whakaari a Te Kooti, he whakaheke kāwai tangata, otirā, he ako tonu i ngā mahi a te tohunga. Ko ōna koroua ake ngā tino tohunga o aua rā, ā, he wā i te haere mai e whakawahia ai a Hikawera ki ēnei mahi katoa. Nā Paitini Wī Tāpeka i ako ki ngā kōrero a Tūhoe, nā Haniko Te Ao me ētahi atu i ako ki te taha wairua. Tokomaha rātau i akona ēngari ko ia i tūmanakohia.

I a ia e taiohi tonu ana, ka whakangungua ki ngā mahi a te ngahere, ki ngā kawa o te patu manu, ki ngā wāhi pupuhi manu, whai poaka, whakarapu tuna o Te Urewera, o Ngāti Tāwhaki me ērā atu o ngā hapū o Ruatāhuna. Ka tohutohungia ki ngā rohe o ōna hapū, ki ngā wāhi tapu, ki ngā nohoanga tipua, nohoanga taniwha o ōna awa mai i tētahi pito o te rohe ki tētahi. He tangata i whakapono ki te tipua, ki te taniwha, ēngari kore rawa i wehi ki ēnei tūāhua tikanga. He hinengaro kōioio, he koi, ā, ahakoa te iti o te hanga, kāore e mataku i te tangata, i te kararehe rānei. He toa ki te whakarata hōiho riri, he pārekareka nāna te hopu kau puihi i te ngahere. Nā tōna toa ki te whātōtō kau, ka whakairia atu te īngoa Hopu Kau ki a ia e tōna whānau. He īngoa anō ōna ko Te Wherowhero, nō te āhua wherowhero o ōna makawe.

I te tau 1924, i te tīmatanga o ngā mahi whakahou i Te Whai-a-te-motu, te whare o Te Urewera e tū rā i Ruatāhuna, ka uru atu a Hikawera ki tērā mahi. Ko tāna mahi tuatahi he kani papa rākau i te wāpu i Hukanui; hei te otinga, kua utaina ki runga i te kōneke, kua tōia e ngā hōiho ki te tūnga o te whare, he autaia tonu te mamao atu. Nō konei hoki, i ako ai ki te whakairo rākau i raro i te tohutohu a Te Whenuanui II, ēngari nō te otinga o Te Whai-a-te-motu ka tineia tana hiahia ki te whakairo.

Ko te whakapae nō waenganui i ngā tau 1924 me 1928 ka moe a Hikawera i tana wahine tuatahi, i a Tauwehe Ruth Ripaki Noa Heke o Ngāti Manunui. I Ruatāhuna e noho ana. Tokowhā ngā tamariki a tēnei moenga; he mea tuku katoa ēnei tamariki mā ētahi atu hei whāngai. I pēnei ai nā te mea i te haere kē a Hikawera ki te kimi mahi i Tūranga (Gisborne) i aua tau, ā, roa noa atu te wā, kātahi anō ka hoki mai.

I aha rā, ka wehe rāua ko Tauwehe. Nō Hānuere o te tau 1946 ka moe i tana wahine tuarua, i a Kararaina (Carolyne) Kuratāpirirangi Rangiāhua, i Ruatāhuna. Tekau mā toru ā rāua tamariki, ko te nuinga nā Hikawera tonu i whakawhānau. Tokorua ngā mea tāne i whānau i te ngahere. Noho nei, ka taki hūnuku ki Kānihi, i te taha whakararo o te awa o Whakatāne, mahi pāmu hipi ai. Ko tēnei whenua kei roto i te ngahere, mā te hōiho anake e haere. E rua ngā tau ki Kānihi, ka kite iho kāore e puta te ihu o te pāmu, i te patua o ngā hipi e ngā kaiwhai poaka. Ka āia ngā toenga kararehe, he hipi, he kau rānei, i te ngahere i roto hoki i te awa o Whakatāne ki Hanamāhihi, he whenua kei waenganui tonu i te ngahere o Te Urewera, kei te awa o Whakatāne. I ētahi o ngā haerenga o Hikawera ki te tiki kai i Rūātoki, i Ruatāhuna rānei, kua mau atu i te waipuke. I ētahi waipuke, e rua wiki neke atu e raru atu ana kātahi anō ka hoki atu me ngā kai. Ahakoa, kāore e tino mate te whānau i te mea kei reira tonu ngā kararehe hei kai mā rātau, ā, he wahine mau pū a Kararaina, he wahine whai poaka, patu manu hoki.

Nā te tūmanako kia haere ngā tamariki ki te kura, ka taki puta mai ki te ao mārama i Ruatāhuna i te tau 1955. Kua tekau te pakeke o tā rāua mātāmua kāore anō kia haere ki te kura. Ka noho ki Te Weraiti i Ruatāhuna, he whakatipu kau ngā oranga.

I a ia e ngaro atu ana ki te ngahere, kāore i hapa tana taha Ringatū, ā, whakahaere ana i ana karakia i te pō, i te ata. Tūpono tana puta mai ki te mārakerake i te wā e whakangarongaro ana ōna koroua, ngā pou o te Hāhi Ringatū. Ka riro ko ia hei pou, hei ture hoki mō te Hāhi Ringatū i ngā pāriha o Ruatāhuna. Nāna ngā māra huamata whakamutunga ki Ruatāhuna, hei whakahere ki a Ihowā. He tohunga i taea e ia ngā taumata katoa o te hāhi, mai i ngā karakia ki te whakaora tūroro ki te wairākau, ki te wairua tapu rānei. Nā ōna whakapapa, āpiti atu ki ōna mōhio ki te taha wairua me te taha Māori, tū ana ko ia te mana kaitiaki mō Ruatāhuna, ko Paetawa Miki tō Maungapōhatu.

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1960 ka tū ngā wānanga tikanga a Tūhoe i raro i ngā whakahaere a Te Rangiāniwaniwa (John) Rangihau, ka riro ko Hikawera tētahi o ngā tino kaikōrero. He tangata kī tonu i ngā kōrero tuku iho, mōhio ki ngā waiata, karakia, tauparapara a tōna iwi. He hono hoki ki te ao kōhatu nā rātau nei a ia i whāngai ki te kai mārō. He tangata i kaha ki te ako i āna tamariki me āna mokopuna.

I ngā tau tōmuri o te tekau tau atu i 1970 ka tutū te puehu i waenganui i a Te Urewera hapū me te Poari Kaitiaki o Tūhoe—Waikaremoana (Tūhoe—Waikaremoana Māori Trust Board) i te whakamoanatanga i ngā whenua o Ruatāhuna. Ko Hikawera te kaiārahi i te kaupapa a Te Urewera. Ka pakanga, ka pakanga, me tana kī anō, mea ake te wā, ka pakaru i a ia te mana o te Poari ki roto o Ruatāhuna. Ka haere te wā, ka ū te take a Te Urewera ki uta, ka wāhia e te Kōti Pīra (Court of Appeal) te whakamoanatanga o ngā whenua o Ruatāhuna. Ēngari ko te utu mamae ana. E ai ki a Te Urewera, ko tētahi tonu o ngā tino tama a Hikawera te utu o te whakahere.

Nō te 15 o Mei i te tau 1985 ka mate a Hikawera Te Kurapa i Ruatāhuna. I Mātaatua e whakaupa ana a Tūhoe ki runga ki a ia. I reira e tāpuketia ana. Ka mahue iho tana pouaru me āna tamariki, tokowaru ngā tama, tokowhitu ngā tamāhine, a te moenga tuatahi me te moenga tuarua, me te tini o te mokopuna.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Pou Temara. 'Te Kurapa, Hikawera', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 2000. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/5t9/te-kurapa-hikawera (accessed 17 October 2019)