Kōrero: Rangihau, John Te Rangiāniwaniwa

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Rangihau, John Te Rangianiwaniwa

1919–1987

Nō Tūhoe; he kaiārahi, he ihu oneone, he āpiha toko i te ora Māori, he kaikauwhau i te whare wānanga, he kaitohutohu mō ngā take Māori

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Roka Rangihau,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 2000.

I whānau a John (Hoani) Te Rangiāniwaniwa Rangihau i Te Kūhā, i te takiwā ki te tonga o Waikaremoana i te 5 o Hepetema o te tau 1919. Ko tōna īngoa kārangaranga i mōhiotia whānuitia e ōna hapū me tōna iwi, ko Te Nika, ā, ki te ao whānui, ko Te Rangihau. Ko tōna matua ko Karu Rangihau he ihu oneone, ā, ko tōna whaea ko Waiparani Mateana Rūrehe. He uri a Rangihau nō Hinepūkohurangi, ā, ko ōna hapū ko Ngāti Hinekura, ko Ngāti Ruapani o Waikaremoana, ko Ngāi Te Riu o Ruatāhuna, ko Ngāti Tāwhaki o Rūātoki me Te Patuheuheu o Waiōhau.

I a ia e nohinohi tonu ana, ka pāngia a ia e te mate kohi, ka tonoa atu ia mō tētahi wā poto ki Maungapōhatu ki Te Urewera noho ai. Nō te hokinga atu ki Waikaremoana, ko tana urunga tērā ki te Kura Māori o Kōkako (Kōkako Native School), ā, atu i te tau 1926 ki 1933 tana roa ki reira. Nō te tau 1934 atu ki te tau 1936, i kuraina ia ki Paerata (Wesley College) i Te Tātua (Three Kings), takiwā ki Tāmaki-makau-rau (Auckland).

I tana hokinga atu ki te kāinga i whai mahi tonu a Te Rangihau i Te Moana-a-Toi-te-huatahi (Bay of Plenty). I tētahi mira kani rākau a ia e mahi ana, kātahi ka neke atu ia ki te mahi mā te ngahere kāwanatanga (State Forest Service). Nō muri mai, i whiwhi mahi ia i te Tari mō ngā Mahi Nunui (Public Works Department), ā, ko tētahi wāhi mahi anō ōna ko tērā i te kaupapa hiko ā-awa o Waikaremoana (Waikaremoana Hydro Electric Power Scheme). I te tau 1944, i te mutunga haere o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, i haina a Te Rangihau ki te uru atu ki te tauārangi roera o Aotearoa (Royal New Zealand Air Force), arā, ki te wāhanga o Delta, ki te ako i a ia hai kaitaurima tauira mō te rerewaka. Nō te marama o Hepetema o taua tau anō, nā runga tonu i tāna i tono ai, i whakawhitia atu ia ki te ope taua hōia, ka noho mai rā ia i rāwāhi i Kamupene B o te Ope Taua 28 (Māori) o Aotearoa (28th New Zealand (Māori) Battalion), ā, i te mutunga o te pakanga ka hoki mai nei rātau ko te hokowhitu ki te kāinga.

Atu i te tau 1946 ki 1948 e mahi ana a Te Rangihau i tētahi o ngā pokapū hauora a te kāwanatanga i Huramua, i te takiwā whaka-te-raki mā uru atu rā i Te Wairoa. I te tau 1949, ka tūtaki ia ki a Wenarata Turipa Tait, ā, nō muri tata tonu mai, nō te 29 o Hūrae o taua tau anō ka mārena rāua i Rūātoki; tokoiwa ā rāua tamariki. Nō taua marama tonu anō, i tīmata tana mahi mā te Tari Māori (Department of Māori Affairs) hai āpiha toko i te ora Māori, ā, i te tau o muri mai, kua neke kē atu ia ki Whakatāne, huri ake ai i ngā rohe o Mātaatua me Te Arawa mahi ai. Nā te mea he kaihautū a ia ki te iwi o Tūhoe, i whai wāhi ia ki ngā hui nui puta noa i Aotearoa.

He hinengaro whakapūmahara, patapatai nei te hinengaro o Te Rangihau, ka noho ka tino whakaaro nei ia ki te āhua o ngā Māori, me te kimi hoki i tētahi huarahi hai whakatika ake i ēnei mate. I tua atu i tēnā, kia kore e warea noa te tangata, i whakaaro ia me pēhea tana whakaatu i ngā take nei. I te mutunga mai, he mea whakarite e rātau ko tōna whānau me tōna iwi, me whakamātau a Te Rangihau ki te whakawhiwhi i a ia ki tētahi tohu mātauranga. Nō te tau 1957, i hūnukutia e ia tōna whānau mai i Whakatāne ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington), ā, i tana haerenga atu ki te whare wānanga o Wikitōria (Victoria University), ka riro mai i a ia te tītohu mō te pūtaiao hapori, he karahipi rangahau nei tāna hei āwhina i a ia.

I te putanga o Te Rangihau i āna mahi ako i ngā marama tōmua ake o te tau 1959, ko tana hokinga atu tērā ki te Tari Māori mahi ai, ā, ka whakatuwheratia e ia he tari hou i Taupō. I te paunga o te tau, ka pakari nei ngā mahi a te tari hou, ka nekehia atu ia ki Rotorua, ka riro nei i a ia te tūranga āpiha toko i te ora Māori ā-rohe. I a ia i tēnei tūranga, kāore i ārikarika te nui o āna mahi mā Ngāi Tūhoe, pērā i te whakataunga ake a te kāwanatanga, i ngā take e pā ana ki te moana o Waikaremoana, te kore e oti o te huarahi mai i Rūātoki ki Ruatāhuna, me te pēhea anō o te ahu whakamua o ngā mahi a te Poari Kaitiaki o Tūhoe (Tūhoe Māori Trust Board). I te whakawāteatanga o Tuiringa Tāwera i tana tūranga kākā wahanui mō Tūhoe, ka whakakapia ake a ia e Te Rangihau, ā, tāpiri atu ki tēnā ka riro anō hoki i a ia te tūranga kaitiaki mō Tūhoe. He mea whakahaere anō hoki e ia ngā wānanga mā ngā ākonga me te hunga rangatahi o Tūhoe, he tirotiro nei te mahi i ngā tikanga me ngā tāhuhu kōrero mō Tūhoe. Kāti, i te mutunga mai he mea whakarite i te tau 1971 kia auau tonu te mahi whakatūtū hui haere, e mōhiotia nei ko ngā Hui Ahurei a Tūhoe, e mārō tonu ana te haere i te tekau tau atu i 1990.

Tāpiri atu ki ēnei mahi, i whai wāhi atu anō hoki a Te Rangihau ki te Hāhi Ringatū, ā, arā kē atu hoki te maha o ngā hui a te kāwanatanga i haerea e ia, ā, takahia anō hoki e ia te nuku roa o te whenua. I a ia ka tae ki Āwherika ki te Tonga, i tūtaki ia ki ngā iwi taketake o reira me ngā āpiha kāwanatanga, whakarau ai i ngā take o te wā, ka mutu, i tūtaki rawa hoki ia ki te Perehitini o Tanzania. I tana haerenga ki Ahitereiria i kōrero ia i tētahi hui nā te Rōpū Hoa (Society of Friends) i karanga, ko tana take kōrero ko ngā nekeneke o te ao Māori. I kakari anō hoki ia i ngā kaupapa ake a te iwi o Tokelau, i te wā e ngana ana te kāwanatanga ki te whakapai ake i tō rātau hauora. Nō te tau 1966, i arahina mai e ia tētahi ope manene i Tokelau ki Ākarana (Auckland), āwhina atu hoki ia i tā rātau āta noho ki Aotearoa. Tāpiri atu ki tēnā, he mea toro kauwhau atu e ia ētahi o ngā whare wānanga rongonui o te ao, tae atu ki te whare wānanga o Oxford i Ingarangi .

Nō te tau 1973, i neke atu a Te Rangihau ki Kirikiriroa (Hamilton) mahi mai ai mā Hopuhopu (Centre for Māori Studies and Research) i te Whare Wānanga o Waikato (University of Waikato). I a ia i reira, ka tahuri ia ki te whakahou ake i te pukapuka karakia a te Hāhi Ringatū, āta rangahaua mārire rawatia ana e ia ngā kōrero tuku iho mō Te Kooti, mō ana waiata, me ana kupu whakaari. Ko te nuinga o āna tuhituhinga mō te reo Māori, he mea tuhi e ia i tēnei wā. I pau i a ia te wā e rapu ana me pēhea te pupuri i te reo Māori. Nō te tau 1974, i whakatūria ai ngā rōpū kōhungahunga kōrero Māori, ko tōna tauira rā ko ngā kura pūhou. Ahakoa he tīmatanga tēnei, kāore i kōrerotia te reo i ngā wā katoa, ā, kotahi tau anake te roa o te wā ako mō ia tamaiti. I whai wāhi atu a Te Rangihau ki tētahi komiti a ngā Minita kāwanatanga, he āta tirotiro te mahi ki te waihanga i tētahi kaupapa hou, tōtika ake, hai kaupapare i te paheketanga o te hunga kōrero Māori o Aotearoa. Nō te marama o Āperira o te tau 1982, i tīmata ai te kaupapa kōhanga reo i te pokapū kōkiri o Pukeatua (Pukeatua Kōkiri Centre) i Wainuiomata. Koinei te whakatinanatanga o tāna i tūruapō ai, arā, he whakatipu mai i te kōhungahunga Māori i roto i te mātotoru o te reo me āna tikanga, mai i tōna whānautanga ka eke atu nei ki te rima tau te pakeke.

I te wā ko Kara Puketapu te hēkeretari a te Tari Māori, i tono a ia i a Te Rangihau kia hoki mai ki te tari mahi ai. I te tau 1982, i te tutukitanga o āna mahi mā Hopuhopu, ka noho mai a Te Rangihau hai kaitohutohu matua mā te tari. I konei ka hōrapa atu tāna i whai ai mā te hunga rangatahi ki ētahi atu wāhi o āna mahi. I whai wāhi atu ia ki ētahi kōrerorero i te taha o ngā kaiwhakawā o te Kōti mō ngā Tamariki (Children’s Court) i te wā e whakahiatotia ana te ture mō ngā tamariki, taiohi hoki (Children and Young Persons Act) o 1974. I whakahauhautia e ia ngā kaumātua Māori ki te rapu mai i ā rātau tamariki, mokopuna hoki e mau ana i roto i ngā whare herehere, me te whakatenatena nei i a rātau kia hoki atu ki te wā kāinga ina tukuna mai i te whare herehere. Ina koa tētahi hua o tēnei, ko te whakatūnga atu o ētahi kaumātua hai kaumātua mō ngā whare herehere. Nō te marama o Hune o te tau 1985 i meinga a Te Rangihau hai mema mō te poari kupu pono (Parole Board).

Kōhukihukitia ana te Tari Toko i te Ora (Department of Social Welfare) e te mana o Te Rangihau, ka noho nei ko ia hai tiamana mō te komiti tirotiro, komiti tohutohu Māori. Nō Hūrae o te tau 1985 i whakatūria te komiti nei, ko tāna mahi he whakaatu pai i te āhua tikanga ā-rua hai whakakaupapa tikanga, whakatakoto mahere me te momo tohatoha atu hoki a te tari i āna ratonga, me te whakatairanga ake hoki i te tūranga o te tari ki te whakaaro o te Māori. I taiāwhiotia te whenua e te komiti nei, e whakarongo ana ki ngā hiahia o te iwi. Nō Hūrae o te tau 1986, i tukua ake e te komiti tana rīpoata, ko Pūao-te-ata-tū. Ki tā te komiti i tohe ai, kai te mau tonu te tikanga kaikiri a te tari i roto i te Tari Toko i te Ora, ā, kāore i rerekē atu tēnei āhua i ngā rōpū me ngā tari tūroa o Aotearoa. E ai ki te rīpoata, he mate nui, he mate pāpori e anga nei i Aotearoa. Nō te marama o muri mai, ka tū nei ia ki te kōrero i tētahi hui a te Rōpū Nāhinara o Aoteroa, ka kī atu ia, kāore ia i te rapu utu, noho hara kau noa rānei, ēngari ko tāna kē, he whakawhiwhi i te Māori ki ngā rawa e tika ana māna ka mutu; i reira tonu ka pakaru mai te umere a te hui ki a ia. Nō te tau 1989, i puta te mihi me te whakanui i a ia mō āna kaikoha pūkenga atu ki te kaupapa pāpori, i te whakatūranga i tētahi tūranga whakaako, rangahau hoki i te Whare Wānanga o te Ūpoko o te Ika a Māui (Victoria University of Wellington), ka riro nei nā te Tari Toko i te Ora i utu hai whakahōnore i a ia.

Hau ana tōna rongo ki ngā tari kāwanatanga mō tana pai ki te whakatairanga ake i te mōhiotanga i waenganui i te Māori me te Pākehā, me te whakauru atu hoki i ngā uara o te Māori ki te ao hou. Nō mua atu, i arahina e Te Rangihau ngā tākuta o te Tari o te Ora (Department of Health), e rangahau nei rātau i te hauora o te iwi Māori. Hei tā Tākuta Ian Prior, me i kore a Te Rangihau kāore e taea te mōhio ko wai ngā tāngata tōtika hei kōrero atu mā rātau. He mema anō hoki a Te Rangihau nō ngā komiti tohutohu o te motu a te Tari Kura (Department of Education), he tirotiro nei te mahi i te mātauranga Māori me te mātauranga reorua hoki. Hei kaitohutohu matua anō hoki ia mā te Papatangata o Aotearoa (Dictionary of New Zealand Biography), arā tētahi wāhanga o te Tari Taiwhenua. I ngā tau pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1980, i haerea e ia ngā hui a ngā tāngata whenua puta noa i te ao, kātahi āno ka tīmata haere aua hui.

Anā kē atu te roa o te āwhina a Te Rangihau i te mahi ki te whakaara ake anō i te wairua me ngā tikanga a te iwi Māori. He tangata mau kē nei hoki tana pai ki te whaikōrero, ā, ka mutu, whakaaro nuitia ana a ia mō tana toa ki te haka, ahakoa ko ia te kaiwhakakite, te kaitito, te kaiwānanga kē rānei, kāore i rerekē ake. He tangata māika noa a Te Rangihau ki te kōrero, ēngari nā te mea he ngākau pono, he tino mōhio nōna, ka kīia he momo anō, ā, me ka noho mai te tangata ki tana taha, manarū noa ana ia i a ia. Nō te tau 1975, i whakawhiwhia a Te Rangihau ki te mētera hiranga o te Emepaea o Peretānia (British Empire Medal) mō āna mahi mā te iwi Māori. I mate tōna hoa rangatira i te tau 1976, ā, nō te 14 o Oketopa o te tau 1987, i hinga a Te Rangihau i Rotorua. Mahue mai ana ngā tamariki a rāua ko tana hoa. He mea tāpuke a Hoani Rangihau ki Ngongotahā.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Roka Rangihau. 'Rangihau, John Te Rangiāniwaniwa - Rangihau, John Te Rangianiwaniwa', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 2000. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/5r6/rangihau-john-te-rangianiwaniwa (accessed 25 April 2019)