Kōrero: Pītama, Te Aritaua

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Pitama, Te Aritaua

1906–1958

Ngai Tahu leader; teacher, broadcaster, concert party producer

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara and Riki Te Mairaki Pitama,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 2000, and updated in January, 2002.

Nō te 23 o Pēpuere i te tau 1906 i whānau mai a Te Aritaua Pītama i te kāinga Māori o Tuahiwi, i te taha whaka-te-raki o Kaiapoi. Ko ia te mātāmua o ngā tamariki tekau mā rua a Weretā Tainui Pītama (ki ētahi ko Te Ruapōhatu Pītama, Stone Pītama kē rānei tōna īngoa), rāua ko tana hoa rangatira, ko Te Hauraraka Anipi Manakore Maaka. He kaiwhakahaere Māori, tangata ahu whenua hoki tōna hakoro a Weretā Pītama, ko ia nei te tumuaki whakapūmau o te Poari Kaitiaki o Ngāi Tahu (Ngāitahu Trust Board). Nō Ngāi Te Ruahikihiki, nō Ngāi Tūāhuriri, nō Ngāi Te Rakiāmoa me ētahi hapū anō o Ngāi Tahu a Weretā, ā, ko te whānau o tōna whaea nō Ngāi Tahu, nō Ngāti Māmoe me ngā iwi o ngā moemoetanga o te whaitua i Moeraki me Murihiku. Ko tana tino hapū ko Ngāti Hinematua. I ētahi wā ka mea a Te Aritaua nō Ngāti Hinematua kē a ia.

I whakatipua ake a Te Aritaua Pītama kia tau ki te kōrero Māori, otirā, i taua wā kua tauhou haere kē te reanga mātātahi o Ngāi Tahu ki te kōrero i tō rātou reo. He mea ako a ia e tōna whaea ki te whakapapa, ā, he tauira tonu hoki ia nā Teone Taare Tīkao. Tērā pea, i kuraina a Te Aritaua i te kura tuatahi i Tuahiwi. Mai i te tau 1918 ki 1924, i kuraina ia ki te kāreti o Te Karaiti (Christ’s College) i Ōtautahi (Christchurch). Ko te mutunga iho, ka pakari, ka matatau ia ki ngā reo e rua. Nō muri iho i tana wehenga mai i te kura, i whai atu ia i te kaupapa Rātana. He kaiwhakaako a ia ko tana māmā i te kura o Rātana Pā, ā, nō muri iho ka haere ia ki te mahi mā tētahi nūpepa i Te Papa-i-ōia (Palmerston North). Nō te 23 o Hānuere o te tau 1931, ka moe ia i a Ethel Winifred Ball i Te Papa-i-ōia. Kāore rāua i whai tamariki, ēngari he maha ngā whāngai.

Ka taka atu nei ki te tau 1934, kua hoki kē atu a Pītama ki Tuahiwi, he kaimahi nei tana mahi. I te taenga mai o te kaiārahi, kaiwhakaū hoki o te Hāhi Rātana me tōna peka tōrangapū, o Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana ki Tuahiwi, kua whakakaumātua kētia a Pītama, ahakoa kāore anō kia toru tekau tau tōna pakeke. He mea karanga a Rātana ki Tuahiwi ki te tangi ki tana tama, ki a Ārepa, ko tana wahine he wahine Māori nei nō Te Waipounamu. I tua atu i tēnā, ko te mahi anō he whakahauhau i te kaupapa Rātana me tāna pitihana hoki mō te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ko Pītama tētahi o ngā kaikōrero i tuku mihi atu ki a Rātana.

Nō te taenga mai o Rātana, he mea karanga anō e Pītama te mēa o Ōtautahi, a D. G. Sullivan, kia haramai ki Tuahiwi kia kōrerorerotia te kaupapa Rātana me ōna tūmanako. I tukua atu hoki e Pītama te whakaaro o Rātana kia riro mā tana rōpū kōnohete e āwhina te mahi kohikohi moni a te mēa mō te tahua āwhina i te hunga pōkeka (Relief of Distress Fund). I tukua atu anō hoki e Pītama he pōhiri ki te Tiuka o Koroheta (Gloucester) kia haere mai ki Tuahiwi ina tae mai nei ia ki Aotearoa. Ā taihoa ake i taua tau ka tae ake nei te Tiuka ki Ōtautahi, ka whakatūria ko Pītama hei kaiwhakahaere mō te pōwhiri me te hākari. I te whakapūmautanga i te hononga o te Hāhi Rātana rāua ko te Rōpū Reipa, ka tīmata tana whakapou haere i te rōpū nei ki waenganui ki te iwi Māori o Te Waipounamu, ā, whakatūria ana hoki a ia hei kaiwhakahaere pōti mā Eruera Tirikātene. Nō te tau 1936 i whakaurua atu a ia hei mema mō te kōmiti whakahaere Māori (Māori Organising Committee) o te Rōpū Reipa.

Nō te tau 1937, i tīkina atu a Te Aritaua Pītama e Colin Scrimgeour o te tari pāho arumoni o te motu (National Commercial Broadcasting Service), ka whakanōhia ake nei hei kaipāho Māori mō ngā teihana reo irirangi ZB. E hia nei ngā tau e mahi ana ia i tēnei mahi mā te reo irirangi o 3ZB. Mai i te tau 1945, ka tīmata tana ako i ngā tamariki pakeke ake o te kura tuatahi o Tuahiwi ki te waiata, ki te haka me te piu i te poi, arā, he mea tautoko rā te mahi nei e te tumuaki o te kura. I akona anō hoki ngā tamariki ki ngā waiata ā-ōrua whakamoemiti i te reo Rātina, ā, i akona anō hoki ki te waiata i ngā hīmene, hīmene Kirihimete atu hoki. I whakaaetia e te poari whakaako o Waitaha ki te raki (North Canterbury Education Board) kia heria atu e ia tana kapa haka mō te wā poto nei, ki te torotoro haere i ngā kura Pākehā, ā, e whā nei ngā kōnohete i whakahaerea e rātou. I muri mai i tēnei i whakahaerea anō hoki he kōnohete ‘arumoni’ ki Te Ika-a-Māui me Te Waipounamu, hei kohikohi moni hei hari atu i taua kapa haka ki Pōneke (Wellington) hei pōwhiri i te Ope Tauā 28 (Māori) o Aotearoa (28th New Zealand (Māori) Battalion), ka hoki mai nei i tāwāhi.

Nō Hānuere o te tau 1946, i riro nā tētahi rōpū tamariki, e rua tekau mā whā pea te nui, i karangatia nei ko Te Rōpū Pīpīwharauroa (ēngari ko Te Roopū Tamariki o Tuahiwi kē anō hoki te īngoa atu), i whakahaere tētahi whakaari e kīia nei ko te ‘Tira Haere Māori’ (Māori Cavalcade) ki te Tāone Hōro o Pōneke, ā, nō muri mai ka haere atu ki Te Papa-i-ōia. Noho mai ana ko Pītama te kaiwhakahaere mō taua whakaari rā, ā, i ā rātou haere i Te Waipounamu i Ākuhata o te tau 1946 i whakamārama atu ia ko te hiahia o tā rātou mahi he whakaatu haere i ngā kōrero tuku iho a te Māori – ki te waiata me te haka – ka hoki atu nei ki te taenga mai o Ngahue ki Te Waipounamu, ka tae mai ki te wā o te wehenga atu o te hokowhitu Māori i te tau 1940. Ko te hiahia anō hoki kia noho tēnei mahi hei āhua akoako i te tamariki. Ki tā Pītama kōrero kāore kau ngā tamariki o tōna kapa haka e mōhio ki te kōrero i tētahi rārangi paku tika noa nei i te reo Māori, ā, ko tōna tūmanako tērā e mōhio rātou ki ā rātou tikanga anō. I taki toro atu taua tira nei ki ngā tāone matua katoa o Te Waipounamu, ka neke atu nei i te waru rau māero tā rātou haere mā runga pahi i te nuku o te whenua.

Nō ngā tau tōmuri o te tekau tau atu i 1940 pea, i whakawhiti atu a Pītama ki Ahitereiria ki te whakaako i ngā tamariki o ngā kura o Niu Taute Wēra (New South Wales) ki ngā tikanga Māori; nōna ake pea te whakaaro ki te haere, ā, waihoki rā ka raru a ia i te kore moni. Nō Tīhema o te tau 1950, ka whakaara anō ia i Te Rōpū Pīpīwharauroa, hei whakahaere kōnohete māna ki ngā kāinga e nōhia ana e te Māori. Ko tana whakaaro nei he kohikohi moni hei whakaara ake anō i te marae me te whare nui i Tuahiwi, ā, hei utu hoki i te whakatūnga o te waharoa, he mea whakairo, hei whakamaharatanga ki ngā hōia o te hokowhitu Māori o Te Waipounamu i hinga atu rā ki tāwāhi. Ēngari i whakaaro anō hoki a ia ki te whakatū i tētahi wāhi pokapū mā ngā Māori katoa o Te Waipounamu. I te tuatahi i whakaaro kē ia ki te whakatū i te wāhi nei ki te marae o Tuahiwi, e mea nei ia ki te whakaara ake me te whakahou, ēngari nō muri mai i hoki anō ia ki tana whakaaro o mua atu ki te whakatū marae i Ōtautahi. Kāore i whai mana a Pītama ki te whakahaere i ēnei mahi, tono moni rānei, ā, kāore i tautokona e ngā pakeke o Tuahiwi me te hunga kātipa āna take; i te mutunga mai kore rawa i whakaaetia, i tukua mai rānei he moni. Kaikiri ana ētahi āpiha o te Tari Māori (Department of Māori Affairs) ki āna mahi, ā, ka mutu mai tā rātou nā i te whakamahi i a ia ki te rēhita i āna mahi kōnohete. Nō muri rawa mai i tōna matenga atu, i whakatuwheratia te marae o te motu, ko Ngā Hau e Whā te īngoa, ki te kawa he mea whakatakoto mai e Pītama.

Nō te tau 1953 i pōtitia atu a Te Aritaua Pītama hei mema mō te Poari Kaitiaki o Ngāi Tahu (Ngaitahu Trust Board), hei māngai rā mō te takiwā o Akaroa. Nō Oketopa o te tau 1956 i whakaīngoatia e ia a Frank Winter hei heamana mō te poari, ā, pōtitia ana hoki a Pītama hei tumuaki tuarua. Nō Hune o te tau 1957 i tono a ia i te poari kia nekehia tō rātou tari atu i Kaiapoi ki Ōtautahi: ki te whakaaro o Pītama kātahi kē te painga ki te nuinga o ngā uri ina neke pērā atu, otirā, nō muri rawa mai i tōna matenga atu i tutuki ai taua whakaaro. I noho ake anō hoki ia i te komiti ā-rohe o Waitaha a te Pouhere Taonga (National Historic Places Trust).

Nō te tau 1957, i huri ai a Te Aritaua Pītama hei Katorika. Nō te 14 o Maehe o te tau 1958 i mate ia ki te hōhipera o Te Angaanga (Calvary Hospital) i Ōtautahi, e rima tekau mā rua tōna pakeke, ā, nehua ake ana a ia i Rāpaki i te 18 o Maehe. Nōna ka mate nei ka mahue mai ko tana pouaru me ana tēina, tuākana rānei, tokowhā nei rātou, me ana tuāhine tokowhā hoki.

Kātahi kē te rawe o Pītama ki te whaikōrero i te marae. Nā tana kaha ki te whakataukī, me te ātaahua o tana kōrero Pākehā, whakahua hoki i ngā tino kōrero o Roma me Kariki, i mau tonu te whakarongo mai a te tangata ki a ia. He tangata weneraunga tonu nei a Pītama, ā, tae rawa ake ki tana tangihanga e pērā tonu ana; hāunga tonu, ā pau noa tōna pakeketanga e kōkirikiri ana i te kaupapa whakaora i ngā tikanga a Ngāi Tahu hei whāngai atu hoki ki te hunga e kimi ana i te kiko o te ora. I whakamātau kaha ia ki te whakangākaunui i te hunga taiohi kia mau tonu ki ērā tikanga tuku iho. I whakapaua e ia ōna kaha ki tōna iwi ā mate noa.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara and Riki Te Mairaki Pitama. 'Pītama, Te Aritaua - Pitama, Te Aritaua', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 2000, updated January, 2002. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/5p29/pitama-te-aritaua (accessed 23 August 2019)