Kōrero: Russell, Mārama

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Russell, Marama

1875/1876?–1952

Nō Ngā Puhi, nō Te Roroa; he tohunga, he kaiwhakawhānau tamariki, he wahine whai mana

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Garry Hooker and Venus McGill Corfield,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1998.

Nō te tau 1875, 1876 rānei, i whānau ai a Mārama Moetara i Waimamaku, he kāinga takutai nō Te Roroa. Anā kē atu hoki te rawe o te mōmona o te whenua o te kāinga nei, torutoru māero te tawhiti mai i te taha whaka-te-tonga o te whanga o Te Hokianga. Ko ia te pōtiki o tōna whānau, tokowhā ōna tuākana, tokorua ōna tungāne. Ko tētahi o ōna tungāne ko te rangatira tonu nei, ko Iehu Moetara. He rangatira tōna pāpā, a Hapakuku Moetara, he mea karanga anō hoki ia ko Tuohu Moetara, nō Ngāti Korokoro me Te Roroa mai ia. He āteha ia nō te kōti o te kaiwhakawā, ā, hei mema anō hoki ia mō te Kaunihera ā-Rohe tuatahi o Te Hokianga (Hokianga County Council). Hei tamāhine te whaea o Mārama, a Mere Hira, mā Te Hira Te Kawau, ā, ka mokopuna anō hoki ia ki a Āpihai Te Kawau, ahorangi o Ngāti Whātua i Ōrākei. I te taha ki tōna pāpā, ko ōna tūpuna ko Rangatira Moetara o Ngāti Korokoro – nāna rā te Tiriti o Waitangi i haina – rāua ko Te Hana. Hei irāmutu a Te Hana mā Tāoho, te ariki nui, matakite hoki o Te Roroa.

He mea whakatupu mai a Mārama i te kāinga Māori e hāpai ana i te kaupapa Karaitiana me te ao Pākehā hoki, ēngari he mea whakarite kē e rātou ki tā te tikanga mai a te Māori. Nōna ka tamariki, ka kitea e ia te tino whakarerekētanga o ngā āhuatanga o te wā. I pāpouri tōna whānau i te ngaronga o te mana Māori o te iwi kāinga, i te hokonga whānuitanga o ngā whenua me te āta whakanohonoho haere mai i te Pākehā ki runga i te whenua. Māharahara anō hoki rātou ki ngā mate kino o te mahi hoko waipiro tae atu ki te takahi haere tonu a te Karauna i te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Noho ake ana ko Mārama tētahi o ngā tauira tuatahi i te Kura Māori o Waimamaku i te wā i tuwhera ai taua kura i te tau 1885. Heoi anō, poto noa ana tana akoranga ōkawa. Ko tāna mahi nui i tōna ohinga, he āwhina kē i ngā mahi whakahaere i te whare o tōna matua. Pakupaku noa nei tōna mōhio ki te reo Pākehā.

I te 13 o Maehe o te tau 1897, i Rāwene, ka moea e Mārama a Frederick George Russell o Aratapu i te raki o Te Wairoa. He taha Māori nei tōna, ā, ka mokopuna hoki ki a George Frederick Russell, i ōna rā he hoko rākau tana mahi i Te Hokianga. Hei irāmutu anō hoki ia ki a Frederick Nene Russell, te Mema Pāremata tuatahi o Te Tai Tokerau. I te tuatahi, noho ake ai ngā tokorua nei i ngā whenua tuku iho o Mārama i Waikara-Waipoua, i Pākanae me Motutoa anō hoki. Nō muri mai, noho tūturu ana rāua ki Te Koutu (Koutu Point), he raenga i Te Hokianga, te wāhi i whakatakotoria e rāua tētahi kāri tino pai kē nei. Tekau mā whā ngā tamariki a te tokorua nei.

Ka nuku atu ōna tau i te 34 pea, i te 35 rānei, ka tīmata te hau o tōna rongo hei wahine whakawhānau tamariki, hei tohunga whakaora i raro i te tikanga Māori, hei matakite hoki. Nō ōna tūpuna anō ēnei kaha. E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho, e rua āna kurī wairua, kurī āwhina ai i āna mahi. He pango tētahi, he whero tētahi, ā, ko Rōiti te īngoa o te mea whero. Ki te whakaaro nei ko Rōiti o rāua te kaiwaewae, te kaiārahi. Ahakoa tonu te tini, te momo hoki o ōna rongoā, hei whakaora noa ēnei i ngā mate Māori. Nā Mārama tonu te whakahua kāore ia e mōhio ki te whāwhā i ngā mate Pākehā. Putuputu tonu te tono atu a te tākuta o te takiwā tūhāhā, a G. M. Smith i ngā tūroro, he mate Māori nei te mate, ki a Mārama.

Ko tōna rongoā mō te hahaetanga he whakapiripiri he mea mahi mai i te pūtake harakeke, he wai rongoā rānei nō te pirikahu mai. Whakamahia ana e ia te tōtara hei pāpā kiri, i te tumutumu harakeke kē rānei, me ngā pakiaka o te tūpākihi (arā, o te tutu), hei here māna i ngā kōiwi whati. Mō te whēwhē, whakamahia ana e ia te iho o te mamaku me tana hūare ka ūkuikuia atu hoki ki tana rīngi mārena. He wā i tae atu tētahi wahine ki a ia, e puta ana te wai mariao i te ū, pēnei tonu i te tai e pari ana. Ko te mate kē ki a Mārama, kua urutomokia kētia te ū o te wahine rā e te pāpaka. Ko tana rongoā mō tēnei mate, he kaukau tonu i te wai tai, me te penu i te ū ki te rongoā pani a Sloan.

Nā te mea he rangatira ia, he tohunga hoki ki te whakawhānau tamariki, i tonoa tonutia mai ko ia ki te whakaora i te hunga pākoko, ki te whakarite mehemea he tāne, he kōtiro rānei te pēpi e wahatia ana, ā, kia riro mā te romiromi, mā te rāwekeweke, mā te karakia me te rongoā e whānau mai ai te tamaiti. He wahine i mau tonu tana whakapono ki te wairua o te harakeke. I te katoa o ōna rā, noho tonu ko te muka tāna hei here i te pito o te tamaiti.

Tino hau ana te rongo matakite o Mārama. Aua atu te kaha o Mārama ki te tiro, ki te kite he aha te mate o te tangata, whakarite hoki me pēwhea e ora ake te tūroro, ahakoa kāre anō kia whakaatu noatia mai te āhua o te mate ki a ia. I āhei anō ia ki te tono i ngā wairua o ngā tāngata e hemohemo ana kia mau tonu ki tēnei ao. Tērā tētahi wā he mea wero ia kia whakaatu mai i te kaha o ōna pūmanawa e tētahi tohunga o Waikato e whakataetae ana ki a ia. Hei whakautu i tā tērā, tonoa ana e ia ngā ngaru tapu o Te Hokianga, a Ngarunui, a Ngaruroa, a Ngarupaewhenua, ki te whakakī mai i tētahi awaawa i Te Koutu kua tata kē nei te maroke. Kāore i kotahi noa te whakakītanga o te awa nei, ēngari ka toru kē.

He hanga wawaenga noa te hanga o Mārama, ā, he mātotoru, he māwhai nei ngā makawe; he wahine purotu ia. Mārama ana te kite i te tū rangatira māhorahora i tōna kanohi. Ina ka noho ki rō whare, ko tāna mahi i tino rawe ai he takoto noa mai i te raho o te whare ki mua i te ahi, kānewha ai. Koinei te wāhi i putaputa ake ai te nuinga o āna matakite, ā, ki konei kai ake anō ai i tana paipa.

E whā tekau tau a Mārama Russell e mahi ana i ngā mahi tuku iho a te tohunga whakaora tangata. I piri anō ia ki te Hāhi Mihinare i aua tau. Kāore kē i raru tōna mahara ki te whakakotahi i tōna whakapono Mihinare me ngā tikanga onamata. I ēnei mahi āna, ka tū ia hei pou tautohe ki ngā mahi a te tohunga mākutu. Ka tautoko hoki ia i te whakaaro Māori mō te kotahitanga o ngā mea me ngā āhuatanga katoa o te ao nei. Ko tētahi kaupapa nui i āna mahi whakaora, ahakoa hāngai ana ki ngā takahanga o te tapu, ki te kore rānei i tutuki tōtika i te tangata te tikanga o te utu, riro ana māna kē e tau anō ai te mauri o te tangata, e whakahoki mai te wairua tika. He tini ngā taonga i tōna whare, he mea hoatu hei koha māna e te hunga whakaaro nui, nā runga i āna mahi whakaora i a rātou. Hei tohu anō ēnei taonga mō te kore e whakaae o te Māori ki ngā rongoā Pākehā hei rongoā mō te mate Māori.

I mate a Mārama Russell i te 8 o Tīhema o te tau 1952 ki tōna kāinga i Te Koutu. E whitu tekau mā ono tau tōna pakeke i taua wā. Mahue ake ana tokorima ngā tamāhine, tokotoru ngā tama tāne. Nō mua noa atu i a ia tōna hoa tāne i mate ai, nō te 23 o Hepetema o te tau 1935. Kei te urupā o Pākanae kei Te Hokianga rāua tahi e tanu ana.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Garry Hooker and Venus McGill Corfield. 'Russell, Mārama - Russell, Marama', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4r31/russell-marama (accessed 19 June 2019)