Kōrero: Te Kawau, Āpihai

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Te Kawau, Apihai

?–1869

Nō Ngāti Whātua; he rangatira

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Ani Pihema and Ruby Kerei and Steven Oliver,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

I whānau mai a Āpihai Te Kawau i te whakapaunga o te rau tau 1700–1799. Ko ōna mātua ko Tarahawaiki rāua ko Mokorua nō Waiōhua. Ko tōna tupuna ko Tuperiri he toa rangatira nō Te Taoū hapū o Ngāti Whātua. I te tau 1740 pea ka parekuratia te iwi o Te Wai-o-Hua e Te Taoū. Nō reira ka ngaro te karangatanga Te Wai-o-Hua, ka puta ko Ngā Oho, ko Te Uringutu o Ngāti Whātua. Nā te tini o ngā kāwai rangatira o tēnei tangata ka utaina ki a ia te kōrero 'te tangata whanaunga tini'. Nā ōna torotoronga i kotahi ai a Ngāti Whātua ki ngā wāhi kūiti o te kūrae whenua ki Tāmaki-makau-rau (Auckland).

Te āhua nei i uru a Te Kawau ki te pakanga nui ki a Ngā Puhi i te tau 1807, 1808 rānei. Ko Moremonui te tāhuna, he wāhi e pātata ana ki te paripari o Maunganui i te rohe o Ngāti Whātua. I muri mai ko ia tētahi o ngā kaihautū i te taua, i te Amiowhenua. I hiki atu tērā taua i Oneonenui i te tonga o Kaipara i te tau 182l ki Waikato, ka hono atu ki a Ngāti Maniapoto me ētahi atu i raro i te mana o Peehi Tūkorehu. I ahu atu mā Rotorua ka whakaeke ki Heretaunga kia puta atu ki Te Āpiti i te tāwhārua i Manawatū, ka huri ki te rāwhiti ki Te Wairarapa. I reira ka whawhai atu ki a Ngāti Hikarāhui ka horo te pā i Hakikino i te takiwā ki Te Oreore. E kīia ana i taongia katoatia ngā tāngata i patua e te ope taua. I te pō ko te urunga o Te Kawau he kete kī tonu i te kiko tangata. I Te Whanganui-a-Tara ka horo i a rātou te pā tūwatawata o Ngāti Ira i Tapu-te-ranga, he motu ki te whanga o Paekawakawa (Island Bay). Koia rā te tauranga o ngā waka whakawhitiwhiti i Te Moana-a-Raukawa. I tētahi kōrero i tae rawa te taua ki Te Waipounamu.

I te hokinga whakararo ka ahu mā Te Tai Hauāuru ka whawhai ki a Mua-ūpoko, ki ngā iwi o Whanganui hoki. Ko ngā mōrehu me Te Kawau i tahuri atu ki te āwhina i a Tūkorehu ki te pakanga ki ētahi o Te Āti Awa. Na, kātahi ka riro mā ētahi anō o Te Āti Awa rātou e whakamaru i Pukerangiora te pā nui o Te Āti Awa. Ehara ka whāia anō e ērā o Te Āti Awa ka pakipakitia rātou ki reira. Heoi nō muri i te pakanga o Mangatiti ka puta ake a Te Wherowhero me tana taua ki Pukerangiora, ka puta ngā ihu o Ngāti Whātua. Ka whakapiri atu a Tūkorehu rāua ko Te Kawau me ā rāua toa e 800 ki a Te Wherowhero ka taki hoki ki Waikato i Mei 1822. I pakanga atu ki a Hongi Hika i Mātakitaki, i Mangauika. He aha te aha! I aituā nuitia ko Waikato. Nō Hune ka hoki a Te Kawau ki Tāmaki, ki Kaipara. Kua takahia nei hoki e rātou te roanga o Te Ika-a-Māui. Kotahi mano māero tā rātou haere i ērā pakanga nunui rawa atu o te ao Māori.

I te mea i āwhinatia e Te Kawau a Waikato i Mātakitaki, ka wehi ia kei parekuratia rātou e Ngā Puhi, e Hongi Hika, hei utu mō te patunga o ana tuākana tokorua i Moremonui. Ka neke a Te Kawau me tōna hapū ki Pukewhau i te awa o Waipā, ka haere hoki ētahi o Ngāti Whātua ki Mahurangi. Ahakoa ēnei wehewehenga i whawhai tonu rātou, ā tae noa ki te tau 1825 i te pakanga ki a Ngā Puhi i Te Ika-ā-ranganui. I Ōkahu ka haere a Te Kawau ki te āwhina i tērā wehenga i Mahurangi. Tae rawa atu ki te kauhanga riri, kua parekuratia kē. Kei tuawhenua mai tēnei i Mangawhai, kei te pūtahitanga o ngā awa o Kaiwaka me Waimako. I muri mai i te riri i Te Ika-ā-ranga-nui ka marara a Ngāti Whātua ka mahue iho torutoru noa nei ki Tāmaki. Nō te matenga o Hongi i te tau 1828 kātahi anō ka āhei a Ngāti Whātua ki te hoki mai ki Tāmaki. Ka mahia anō ā rātou māra kai ki Māngere, ki Onehunga, ki tō rātou whenua tupu ki Ōrākei, ki te Horotiu i Te Waitematā.

Nō te 20 o Maehe 1840 ka whakamaua e Te Kawau tōna tohu ki te Tiriti o Waitangi i Manukau. E rapu ana hoki i te ora mō tana iwi i raro i te maru o Ingarangi kei mate rātou i a Ngā Puhi. I te tekau tau mai i 1830 ko Pōtatau Te Wherowhero tō rātou whakaruruhau. Ahakoa kīhai a Te Wherowhero i haina kāore kē ana whakahāwea ki te Tiriti.

Kāore tonu i roa i muri mai ka karangahia e Te Kawau he hui ki Kohimaramara (Kohimarama). Ka whakaputaina ōna whakaaro kia tukuna he whenua hei nohoanga mō tauiwi i Te Waitematā. Kāore i tutuki te take kia whakatakoto rawahia e te tohunga, e Tītai, tana whakakitenga.

He aha te hau e wawara nei
He tiu he raki
Nāna i ā mai te pūpū tarakihi ki uta
Ka tikina atu e au te Pou whakairo
I te kōtiu
Ka poua ki Te Waitematā
I aku wairangi ē!

Ina te whakamāoritanga o te poropiti: mehemea ka tū te mana kāwanatanga ki Te Waitematā ka ora te iwi o Ngāti Whātua. Ka tonoa te irāmutu a Te Kawau a Te Rēweti ki Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands) ki te inoi atu ki te rūtene kāwana hou ki a Wiremu Hopihona (William Hobson), kia nuku mai ki Tāmaki-makau-rau. Ka whakaritea te whenua e 3,000 eka kia hokona ki te kāwanatanga mō te tāone o Ākarana (Auckland). Nō te 20 o Oketopa 1840 ka whakamanaia te hoko. Ko te utu ki a Te Kawau me ngā rangatira e toru atu anō, e £50 me ngā paraikete, ngā kākahu me ētahi taputapu. Ka ikeike rawa te mana o Te Kawau nā te mea ko ia te tangata whenua. Ka rahi haere te tāone o Ākarana ka uru atu ia ki ngā whakahaere, ka whakahoa ki a Wiremu Mātene (William Martin) te kaiwhakawā matua (chief justice) tuatahi.

I te tau 1844, i te kaha o tana tohe, kātahi anō ka tahuri mai te kāwanatanga ki ngā take a Te Kawau mō ngā Māori e hopukina ana e te ture. I te whakawākanga o Te Mānia o Ngāti Whātua mō te whānako ka whakataungia e te ture me mau ki te herehere. I te haerenga atu o te iwi ki te poroporoaki ki a Te Mānia, ka tangohia, a riro tonu atu i waenga i tana iwi. Kia pēhea te haere a ngā hōia ki Ōkahu ki te kimi, kore rawa i kitea. Ka whakaaro te āpiha o ngā hōia ko Te Kawau tonu e mau ki te whare herehere. Ka taki tū mai tana iwi me ā rātou rākau a Tū, ā, me hoki rā ēnā hōia ka tika. He tokoiti rawa nō āna hōia, i kore ai e taea e te kāwanatanga te whakahau a Te Kawau kia hauraro. Ka riro i tā Te Kawau. Mehemea ka whānako ngā Māori, me whakawhiu kia utua ki te wāriu e rite ana mō ngā taputapu e whā noa atu. Na, ka takoto tērā āhuatanga kia kauaka ngā tāngata tāhae e mauria ki te herehere, ēngari me whakawhiu kia utua ki te moni, arā, ki te Native Exemption Ordinance. Ka kitea ai te kaha o te rangatira Māori i ērā wā; i riro ai ki tana i whakatau ai, ki ngā ritenga Māori. Ko te maunga tēnā o te rongo ki Tāmaki i raro i te mana o Te Kawau.

I aua wā anō rā kua uru atu a Te Kawau ki ngā mahi a ngā minita Mihingare. I te haerenga mai o Te Mātenga (Samuel Marsden) ki tēnei whenua i te tau 1820 ka tūtaki rāua. Ka tukuna e ia he rākau roroa mō te kaipuke o Te Mātenga. Ka haere tahi rāua ki roto o Manukau ki Ruarangi Hāereere, te kāinga o Te Taoū i runga mai o Kaipara. Ka mīharo a Te Mātenga ki te tāroaroa, ki te tū rangatira o tērā tangata o Te Kawau. Me tōna aroha hoki ki ōna whanaunga. I mea atu hoki ki a Te Mātenga kia inoi ki te Atua o ngā Karaitiana kia whakaorangia ngā māuiui o tana teina i tū i te tao rākau.

Nō konei ka tahuri a Te Kawau ki te whakawātea i a ia i ngā whakaritenga Māori kia āhei ai ia ki te huri ki te āhuatanga Karaitiana. Ko Kirepiro o Te Taoū tētahi o ana wāhine maha. He kore hiahia nōna ki te tuku i te mea kotahi o rātou, i whakatakaroa tana huri ki te Whakapono. Mātua hui rawa tana iwi, ka whakataungia ko Āpihai hei īngoa iriiri mōna. He tino toa tērā tangata a Āpihai (Abishai) kei ngā kōrero o te Paipera. Ā, ka tae ki te wā, nā Pīhopa Herewini (G. A. Selwyn) a Āpihai Te Kawau i iriiri i te whare karakia i Ōrākei.

I te tau 1852 ka tū ia hei āteha hei whakawā i ngā raruraru i waenga i ngā Māori o Ākarana. I tōna kaumātuatanga ka whakawhiwhia ki te penihana, e £50 i te tau. Nō tēnei wā kua tohe ia kia kauaka ngā Māori e hoko i ō rātou whenua. I 1853 ka inoi ki a Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey) kia whai whakaaro te kāwana kia puritia te whenua i Ōrākei mō Ngāti Whātua. Heoi i riro tonu ētahi o aua whenua. Ka puta ana āwangawanga kei ngaro ō rātou whenua i Ōrākei i roto i tana waiata poroporoaki ki a Kerei:

Te ao kapua e rere mai rā
Kei te moana rā, ī
Ki konei au mihi atu ai
Tangi atu ai
Ki tāku nei tamaiti.
E hara i te tangata [ēngari]
Ko te whatu toto o te ngākau.

I te tau 1868 ka tutuki i te Kōti Whenua Māori te rēhita o te whenua e 700 eka i Ōrākei ki a Ngāti Whātua motuhake.

Nō Noema i te tau 1869 ka mate a Te Kawau i Ōngārahu i Kaipara. Ka mahue ake ana tamariki tokorua, Te Hira Te Kawau rāua ko tana tuahine ko Hera Whakamana. Nā rāua ka puta ko Ngāti Whātua whānui e noho mai rā i Ōrākei. I tanumia a Te Kawau ki Kaipara.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ani Pihema, Ruby Kerei and Steven Oliver. 'Te Kawau, Āpihai - Te Kawau, Apihai', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t42/te-kawau-apihai (accessed 22 May 2019)