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Te Kawau, Āpihai

by Ani Pihema, Ruby Kerei, Steven Oliver

Biography

I whānau mai a Āpihai Te Kawau i te whakapaunga o te rau tau 1700–1799. Ko ōna mātua ko Tarahawaiki rāua ko Mokorua nō Waiōhua. Ko tōna tupuna ko Tuperiri he toa rangatira nō Te Taoū hapū o Ngāti Whātua. I te tau 1740 pea ka parekuratia te iwi o Te Wai-o-Hua e Te Taoū. Nō reira ka ngaro te karangatanga Te Wai-o-Hua, ka puta ko Ngā Oho, ko Te Uringutu o Ngāti Whātua. Nā te tini o ngā kāwai rangatira o tēnei tangata ka utaina ki a ia te kōrero 'te tangata whanaunga tini'. Nā ōna torotoronga i kotahi ai a Ngāti Whātua ki ngā wāhi kūiti o te kūrae whenua ki Tāmaki-makau-rau (Auckland).

Te āhua nei i uru a Te Kawau ki te pakanga nui ki a Ngā Puhi i te tau 1807, 1808 rānei. Ko Moremonui te tāhuna, he wāhi e pātata ana ki te paripari o Maunganui i te rohe o Ngāti Whātua. I muri mai ko ia tētahi o ngā kaihautū i te taua, i te Amiowhenua. I hiki atu tērā taua i Oneonenui i te tonga o Kaipara i te tau 182l ki Waikato, ka hono atu ki a Ngāti Maniapoto me ētahi atu i raro i te mana o Peehi Tūkorehu. I ahu atu mā Rotorua ka whakaeke ki Heretaunga kia puta atu ki Te Āpiti i te tāwhārua i Manawatū, ka huri ki te rāwhiti ki Te Wairarapa. I reira ka whawhai atu ki a Ngāti Hikarāhui ka horo te pā i Hakikino i te takiwā ki Te Oreore. E kīia ana i taongia katoatia ngā tāngata i patua e te ope taua. I te pō ko te urunga o Te Kawau he kete kī tonu i te kiko tangata. I Te Whanganui-a-Tara ka horo i a rātou te pā tūwatawata o Ngāti Ira i Tapu-te-ranga, he motu ki te whanga o Paekawakawa (Island Bay). Koia rā te tauranga o ngā waka whakawhitiwhiti i Te Moana-a-Raukawa. I tētahi kōrero i tae rawa te taua ki Te Waipounamu.

I te hokinga whakararo ka ahu mā Te Tai Hauāuru ka whawhai ki a Mua-ūpoko, ki ngā iwi o Whanganui hoki. Ko ngā mōrehu me Te Kawau i tahuri atu ki te āwhina i a Tūkorehu ki te pakanga ki ētahi o Te Āti Awa. Na, kātahi ka riro mā ētahi anō o Te Āti Awa rātou e whakamaru i Pukerangiora te pā nui o Te Āti Awa. Ehara ka whāia anō e ērā o Te Āti Awa ka pakipakitia rātou ki reira. Heoi nō muri i te pakanga o Mangatiti ka puta ake a Te Wherowhero me tana taua ki Pukerangiora, ka puta ngā ihu o Ngāti Whātua. Ka whakapiri atu a Tūkorehu rāua ko Te Kawau me ā rāua toa e 800 ki a Te Wherowhero ka taki hoki ki Waikato i Mei 1822. I pakanga atu ki a Hongi Hika i Mātakitaki, i Mangauika. He aha te aha! I aituā nuitia ko Waikato. Nō Hune ka hoki a Te Kawau ki Tāmaki, ki Kaipara. Kua takahia nei hoki e rātou te roanga o Te Ika-a-Māui. Kotahi mano māero tā rātou haere i ērā pakanga nunui rawa atu o te ao Māori.

I te mea i āwhinatia e Te Kawau a Waikato i Mātakitaki, ka wehi ia kei parekuratia rātou e Ngā Puhi, e Hongi Hika, hei utu mō te patunga o ana tuākana tokorua i Moremonui. Ka neke a Te Kawau me tōna hapū ki Pukewhau i te awa o Waipā, ka haere hoki ētahi o Ngāti Whātua ki Mahurangi. Ahakoa ēnei wehewehenga i whawhai tonu rātou, ā tae noa ki te tau 1825 i te pakanga ki a Ngā Puhi i Te Ika-ā-ranganui. I Ōkahu ka haere a Te Kawau ki te āwhina i tērā wehenga i Mahurangi. Tae rawa atu ki te kauhanga riri, kua parekuratia kē. Kei tuawhenua mai tēnei i Mangawhai, kei te pūtahitanga o ngā awa o Kaiwaka me Waimako. I muri mai i te riri i Te Ika-ā-ranga-nui ka marara a Ngāti Whātua ka mahue iho torutoru noa nei ki Tāmaki. Nō te matenga o Hongi i te tau 1828 kātahi anō ka āhei a Ngāti Whātua ki te hoki mai ki Tāmaki. Ka mahia anō ā rātou māra kai ki Māngere, ki Onehunga, ki tō rātou whenua tupu ki Ōrākei, ki te Horotiu i Te Waitematā.

Nō te 20 o Maehe 1840 ka whakamaua e Te Kawau tōna tohu ki te Tiriti o Waitangi i Manukau. E rapu ana hoki i te ora mō tana iwi i raro i te maru o Ingarangi kei mate rātou i a Ngā Puhi. I te tekau tau mai i 1830 ko Pōtatau Te Wherowhero tō rātou whakaruruhau. Ahakoa kīhai a Te Wherowhero i haina kāore kē ana whakahāwea ki te Tiriti.

Kāore tonu i roa i muri mai ka karangahia e Te Kawau he hui ki Kohimaramara (Kohimarama). Ka whakaputaina ōna whakaaro kia tukuna he whenua hei nohoanga mō tauiwi i Te Waitematā. Kāore i tutuki te take kia whakatakoto rawahia e te tohunga, e Tītai, tana whakakitenga.

He aha te hau e wawara nei
He tiu he raki
Nāna i ā mai te pūpū tarakihi ki uta
Ka tikina atu e au te Pou whakairo
I te kōtiu
Ka poua ki Te Waitematā
I aku wairangi ē!

 

Ina te whakamāoritanga o te poropiti: mehemea ka tū te mana kāwanatanga ki Te Waitematā ka ora te iwi o Ngāti Whātua. Ka tonoa te irāmutu a Te Kawau a Te Rēweti ki Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands) ki te inoi atu ki te rūtene kāwana hou ki a Wiremu Hopihona (William Hobson), kia nuku mai ki Tāmaki-makau-rau. Ka whakaritea te whenua e 3,000 eka kia hokona ki te kāwanatanga mō te tāone o Ākarana (Auckland). Nō te 20 o Oketopa 1840 ka whakamanaia te hoko. Ko te utu ki a Te Kawau me ngā rangatira e toru atu anō, e £50 me ngā paraikete, ngā kākahu me ētahi taputapu. Ka ikeike rawa te mana o Te Kawau nā te mea ko ia te tangata whenua. Ka rahi haere te tāone o Ākarana ka uru atu ia ki ngā whakahaere, ka whakahoa ki a Wiremu Mātene (William Martin) te kaiwhakawā matua (chief justice) tuatahi.

I te tau 1844, i te kaha o tana tohe, kātahi anō ka tahuri mai te kāwanatanga ki ngā take a Te Kawau mō ngā Māori e hopukina ana e te ture. I te whakawākanga o Te Mānia o Ngāti Whātua mō te whānako ka whakataungia e te ture me mau ki te herehere. I te haerenga atu o te iwi ki te poroporoaki ki a Te Mānia, ka tangohia, a riro tonu atu i waenga i tana iwi. Kia pēhea te haere a ngā hōia ki Ōkahu ki te kimi, kore rawa i kitea. Ka whakaaro te āpiha o ngā hōia ko Te Kawau tonu e mau ki te whare herehere. Ka taki tū mai tana iwi me ā rātou rākau a Tū, ā, me hoki rā ēnā hōia ka tika. He tokoiti rawa nō āna hōia, i kore ai e taea e te kāwanatanga te whakahau a Te Kawau kia hauraro. Ka riro i tā Te Kawau. Mehemea ka whānako ngā Māori, me whakawhiu kia utua ki te wāriu e rite ana mō ngā taputapu e whā noa atu. Na, ka takoto tērā āhuatanga kia kauaka ngā tāngata tāhae e mauria ki te herehere, ēngari me whakawhiu kia utua ki te moni, arā, ki te Native Exemption Ordinance. Ka kitea ai te kaha o te rangatira Māori i ērā wā; i riro ai ki tana i whakatau ai, ki ngā ritenga Māori. Ko te maunga tēnā o te rongo ki Tāmaki i raro i te mana o Te Kawau.

I aua wā anō rā kua uru atu a Te Kawau ki ngā mahi a ngā minita Mihingare. I te haerenga mai o Te Mātenga (Samuel Marsden) ki tēnei whenua i te tau 1820 ka tūtaki rāua. Ka tukuna e ia he rākau roroa mō te kaipuke o Te Mātenga. Ka haere tahi rāua ki roto o Manukau ki Ruarangi Hāereere, te kāinga o Te Taoū i runga mai o Kaipara. Ka mīharo a Te Mātenga ki te tāroaroa, ki te tū rangatira o tērā tangata o Te Kawau. Me tōna aroha hoki ki ōna whanaunga. I mea atu hoki ki a Te Mātenga kia inoi ki te Atua o ngā Karaitiana kia whakaorangia ngā māuiui o tana teina i tū i te tao rākau.

Nō konei ka tahuri a Te Kawau ki te whakawātea i a ia i ngā whakaritenga Māori kia āhei ai ia ki te huri ki te āhuatanga Karaitiana. Ko Kirepiro o Te Taoū tētahi o ana wāhine maha. He kore hiahia nōna ki te tuku i te mea kotahi o rātou, i whakatakaroa tana huri ki te Whakapono. Mātua hui rawa tana iwi, ka whakataungia ko Āpihai hei īngoa iriiri mōna. He tino toa tērā tangata a Āpihai (Abishai) kei ngā kōrero o te Paipera. Ā, ka tae ki te wā, nā Pīhopa Herewini (G. A. Selwyn) a Āpihai Te Kawau i iriiri i te whare karakia i Ōrākei.

I te tau 1852 ka tū ia hei āteha hei whakawā i ngā raruraru i waenga i ngā Māori o Ākarana. I tōna kaumātuatanga ka whakawhiwhia ki te penihana, e £50 i te tau. Nō tēnei wā kua tohe ia kia kauaka ngā Māori e hoko i ō rātou whenua. I 1853 ka inoi ki a Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey) kia whai whakaaro te kāwana kia puritia te whenua i Ōrākei mō Ngāti Whātua. Heoi i riro tonu ētahi o aua whenua. Ka puta ana āwangawanga kei ngaro ō rātou whenua i Ōrākei i roto i tana waiata poroporoaki ki a Kerei:

Te ao kapua e rere mai rā
Kei te moana rā, ī
Ki konei au mihi atu ai
Tangi atu ai
Ki tāku nei tamaiti.
E hara i te tangata [ēngari]
Ko te whatu toto o te ngākau.

 

I te tau 1868 ka tutuki i te Kōti Whenua Māori te rēhita o te whenua e 700 eka i Ōrākei ki a Ngāti Whātua motuhake.

Nō Noema i te tau 1869 ka mate a Te Kawau i Ōngārahu i Kaipara. Ka mahue ake ana tamariki tokorua, Te Hira Te Kawau rāua ko tana tuahine ko Hera Whakamana. Nā rāua ka puta ko Ngāti Whātua whānui e noho mai rā i Ōrākei. I tanumia a Te Kawau ki Kaipara.


He whakaaturanga anō

Rārangi pukapuka

    Orange, C. The Treaty of Waitangi. Wellington, 1987

    Smith, S. P. Maori wars of the nineteenth century. 2nd and enl. ed. Christchurch, 1910

    Waitangi Tribunal. Report of the Waitangi Tribunal on the Orakei claim. Wellington, 1987


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ani Pihema, Ruby Kerei and Steven Oliver. 'Te Kawau, Āpihai', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t42/te-kawau-apihai (accessed 23 June 2021)