Kōrero: Davis, Charles Richard and Davis, Edward Charles

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Davis, Charles Richard

1895–1964

Nō Ngāti Maniapoto; he kaihautū, he tangata ahu whenua, he parakimete, he kaihanga, he kaitātai whakapapa

Davis, Edward Charles

1887–1958

Nō Ngāti Maniapoto; he kaihautū, he tangata ahu whenua, he tumu kōrero, he kaitātai whakapapa, he āpotoro Rātana

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Te Aue Davis, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia 1998.

Ko Erueti (Edward) rāua ko Hāre (Charles) ngā tama a John Charles Davis (Hōne Hāre Rēweti) rāua ko tana wahine, ko Te Riutoto Aihe. Tokorua atu anō ā rāua tama. He tama a Hōne nā Merekaimanu o Ngāti Whanaunga me Ngāti Pāoa, rāua ko tana tāne ko Edward Telford Davis, he tangata i ahu mai i Wēra me Airini. Ko Te Riutoto i heke iho i a Ngāti Kinohaku me Ngāti Te Kanawa, he hapū nō Ngāti Maniapoto. I heke iho rāua tahi i ngā kāwai tūpuna o Tainui. Ko te mātāmua o ā rāua tama, ko Edward Charles (ko Erueti Haare Rēweti tētehi o ōna īngoa kārangaranga), i whānau ki Ōtorohanga i te 16 o Mei i te tau 1887. Ka tipu nei ia, inā kē te roa me te pakari o te hanga, anō te rite ki tana taha Airihi tēnā i tana taha Māori. Ko Charles Richard (Hāre Rīhari) te mea tuatoru o ngā tama, nō te 26 o Maehe i te tau 1895 i whānau ai i Waitomo. Pērā tonu tana roa i tana tuakana, me te hanga rangatira o te tinana, ēngari i whai kē tōna āhua i te taha Māori o tōna whaea.

I muri tonu iho i te whakanohonoho mai a te Pākehā i te Rohe Pōtae i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1880, kua oti kē te nuinga o ngā whenua te mau mai ki te aroaro o te Kōti Whenua Māori, whakakorea ana te taitara whenua papatipu a te Māori, riro kē ana i ia tangata kotahi te taitara. Taka rawa ki te tau 1894, kua hūnuku kē te whānau a Rēweti ki Tionui, ki runga i te wāhanga whenua o te poraka o Ruapuha, i wehea e te Kōti hei whenua mō Te Riutoto.

He whakatupu poaka te mahi tuatahi i mahia ki runga i tā rātou pāmu, hei hoko atu ki ngā tāone o Ōtorohanga, o Te Awamutu me Te Kūiti e pihi ake rā. Āpiti atu ki tēnā, i riro nā Hōne Rēweti i hautū te mahi pāmu kau miraka ki taua rohe. He mea whakatupu tonu mai āna tama i roto i te pukumahi. I te mea ko ia te mea pakeke, ka taka ki a Erueti te kawenga taumaha i a ia e tamariki tonu ana. Ko Erueti rāua ko tōna teina, ko Hōhepa (Joseph) ki te heriheri tonu i ngā hua o te pāmu mā runga wākena ki te teihana tereina i Hangatiki, e ono māero te mamao atu. He āwhina anō hoki tana mahi i tōna pāpā ki te ā i ngā kau ki ngā iāri hoko i Ōhaupō, whā tekau māero te tawhiti atu; ko te huarahi atu he whakawhitiwhiti i ngā repo me ngā awa iti inā kē te huhua. Kāore ngā tama i haere ki te kura, ēngari i ngā ahiahi, ka mutu ngā mahi, ka noho te pāpā ki te whakaako i a rātou. Ka akona hoki e te pāpā kia tautōhito ki ngā momo mahi e ora ai rātou i ngā rā kei mua: ki ngā mahi pāmu, ki te whakatupu kararehe, ki te mahi parakimete.

Nā tōna tātai hono ki a Ngāti Ruapuha me Ngāti Uehaka, ka whai pānga a Te Riutoto ki ngā whenua kei reira ngā ana o Waitomo. Ki te whakaaro o te kāwanatanga, he pai ake kia riro mā te motu whānui kē e whakahaere ngā ana o Waitomo, he wāhi e muia ana e te tūruhi, ka tīmata te āta riro haere o te whenua i te kāwanatanga i te tekau tau atu i 1890. I pakangatia e Hōne Rēweti i te Kōti Whenua Māori – he āteha tana mahi i mua i tōna moenga i tana wahine – te tika e mau tonu ai i tana wahine ōna pānga whenua. Otirā kore rawa i pahure he aha he aha. I te tukunga i ngā ana hei wāhi titiro mā ngā tūruhi i te tau 1891, ko Te Riutoto tētehi o ngā kaiārahi. Nō te tau 1900 pea ia i mate ai, ā, he mea tono tonu nāna kia tanumia ia ki Tionui, ki runga i te mea teitei rawa o ngā puke katoa o tōna whenua, kaua ki te urupā o Ngāti Te Kanawa i Marokopa. He tikanga tēnei nāna, kia mau ai te whenua i tōna kāwai haere ake nei. Ko Tionui tonu te urupā o ōna uri maha.

Arā pea nō te tau 1906, 1907 rānei, i whakariterite ai a Hōne Rēweti rāua ko Natanahira Te Moerua ki te whakamoe i ā rāua tamariki, i a Erueti rāua ko Matatira (Tira rānei). He tangata mana nui a Natanahira, ko Kīngi Te Rata tētehi o ngā manuhiri i tae ki te mārenatanga. Tekau mā whā ngā tamariki a Erueti rāua ko Matatira, tokowhā e kōhungahunga tonu ana ka mate. I noho a Erueti rāua ko tana hoa i te taha o tana pāpā, o Hōne Rēweti rātou ko tana wahine tuarua, ko Hurihia Green, ko ōna tuākana kēkē, tēina kēkē rānei, tokowhitu katoa rātou, i te whare o te whānau i Tionui, ā mate noa a Hōne i te tau 1913. Wehewehea ana te whenua o Te Riutoto ki waenganui i ngā tama tokowhā a rāua ko Hōne, ka whakaaro a Erueti ki te hūnuku ki tōna ake poraka noho ai. Ka hangaia e ia tana whare ki runga i tētehi puke he tino kōrero tuku iho nei ōna. Ko te īngoa o taua puke ko Te One Hāpai, he whakataukī mō ngā oneone i mauria mai i ngā tuaone o Marokapa i ngā rā o nehe hei whakamahi i te tipu a te kūmara; e kī ana ētehi i heria mai aua oneone i Tahiti.

He tangata kaha whakapono a Erueti, ā, ahakoa he Mihingare, he wā anō i riro a ia i te ia o te Pai Mārire. I te whakaaranga o te Hāhi Rātana i te tau 1925, whāia ana e ia me te tokomaha atu o Ngāti Kinohaku tēnei Hāhi i runga i te whakapono kei reira te oranga mō tō rātou iwi. Nohonoho ana a Erueti hei āpotoro mō tana iwi ā mate noa.

He wahine whai whenua tonu hoki a Matatira. Ka tau ngā whakaaro o Erueti kua pai te haere o tana pāmu, ka whakarērea iho mā ōna tēina e tiaki, kātahi ka neke ki Hangatiki kia tīmata ai tana whakamahi i te whenua o Matatira. Ka hangaia e ia he whare ki reira, kātahi ka tahuri ki te āwhina i ana taokete ki te whakatū i a Korapatu, he whare nui. Nā Turi Kara (Carroll) me tētehi ope nui nō Ngāti Porou mai taua whare i whakatuwhera. Whakairohia ana ngā hua o tēnei hui ki te whatumanawa o Erueti, ka puta nei ngā kōrero tūhonohono i ngā iwi i runga i ngā whakamoenga, i ngā pākūhā pērā i a Tūrongo rāua ko Māhinārangi i te rau tau tekau mā whitu, hua iho ana ngā tātai uri i taua moenga.

I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1930, ko te mātāmua a Erueti, ko Mākare rāua ko tana wahine, ko Matekino me te teina o Mākare, i te whakahaere i te pāmu i Waitomo; ēngari ko Erueti rātou ko ētehi atu o āna tama i noho tonu ki Hangatiki whakahaere ai i te pāmu i te whenua o Matatira. I te wā o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, riterite tonu te hāereere a Erueti i waenganui i ngā pāmu e rua kia mau tōtika tonu ai te puta o ngā hua. I mau tonu i a ia te whakahaere o āna pāmu tae noa ki te wā ka whakatā ia i te pokapūtanga o te tekau tau atu i 1940. E ai ki āna tama, he tangata mārō tō rātou pāpā, ēngari he tangata tika.

He tangata pukumahi a Erueti ki te tuhituhi, ka mahue mai nei i a ia ana tuhituhi i roto i te reo Māori mō ngā kōrero mō te huakanga o te rohe o Waitomo hei pāmu. Ko te nuinga o ana tuhituhi, pērā i ngā tāpiringa ki ngā pukapuka whakapapa, i mahia e ia i te tekau tau i mua atu i tōna matenga, kua mutu haere kē tana mahi ā-ringaringa i ngā mahi pāmu.

I muri mai o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, ka tīmata tana uru nui atu ki ngā mahi a Ngāti Maniapoto rāua ko Tainui. Ka riro nei ia hei tiamana mō te komiti ā-iwi o Hangatiki (Hangatiki Tribal Committee), ka ngana ia ki te whakatapu atu i te waipiro i ō rātou marae katoa. Pōtitia ana ko ia hei tiamana mō te rōpū whakahaere ā-iwi o Maniapoto (Maniapoto Tribal Executive), he tūranga i mau i a ia e hia kē nei ngā tau. Ko ia hoki te tumuaki o tētehi komiti tohutohu i a Maniapoto–Waikato ki ngā take ahu whenua.

I whakapono rātou ko tōna reanga mahi ki te hua o te mātauranga mō te iwi Māori. Nā tōna kaha, i tae ai ngā mea pōtiki tokorua o āna tama ki te kāreti noho kura ai, riro atu anō hoki te mea tamariki o rāua ki te whare wānanga; nā te Poari Kaitiaki o Tainui (Tainui Māori Trust Board) i āwhina ngā utu. Ka noho nei ko Erueti hei tiamana mō te komiti mātauranga mō ngā pakeke o Maniapoto, hei kaiwhakaako hoki mō ngā karaehe waiata. He tohunga hoki ōna tēina, a Hāre rāua ko Tāmati (Thomas) ki te waiata, ā, i ngā wā e pokea ana a Erueti e te mahi, kua riro ko Hāre hei whakaako i ngā waiata. I te tau 1950, ko Erueti tētehi o te ope o Ngāti Maniapoto i haere ki Pōneke (Wellington) ki te tono kia hōmai he whakaurunga pai ake mō te kaupapa mātauranga mō te iwi Māori.

Ka taka ki te whakapaunga o te tekau tau atu i 1940, kāore i ārikarika te nui o te mahi. Ka uru atu a Erueti ki ngā kaupapa me ngā komiti huhua a Te Puea Hērangi. Noho ana ko ia hei tiamana mō tētehi komiti tohutohu, nāna nei te mahi ki te whakakotahi i te iwi ki raro i te Kīngitanga. Ko ngā mema o taua komiti, ko te hunga tumu kōrero, ko ngā kaitātai whakapapa, ko ngā tohunga waiata, ko ngā pū kōrero, ko ngā kaiwhakairo, ko ngā tāngata ahu whenua me ngā kaihanga waka.

I a ia e tiamana ana mō te rūnanga nui i Tūrangawaewae i te tau 1949, ka riro nā Erueti i kōkiri ngā whakatikatika mō te whakanui i te rau tau tuaono o te hekenga mai o ngā waka i Hawaiki, arā, o te 'Tāruru Nui' kē. Nā Maharaia Winiata i kawe te taumahatanga o ngā mahi whakahaere, ko Eruera tana kaitohutohu. Haere ana rāua ki ngā marae nui ki te kōrerorero i ngā kōrero mō ngā waka me ngā whakapapa. He nui hoki ngā hui i Tūrangawaewae, i te kāinga rānei o Erueti i Hangatiki. E rima ngā pukapuka whakapapa i oti i a ia te whakaemi, ngā hua o aua huihuinga. Whakairotia ana ngā waka tauira pakupaku nei hei tuku atu ki ngā iwi. I tīmata ngā hui whakanui i Te Kaha i te 21 o Hānuere i te tau 1950; ka neke ki Tūranga (Gisborne), ki Ōtaki, ki te tāone o Heretaunga (Hastings), ā, ka oti atu ki Tūrangawaewae i te 5 ki te 10 o Oketopa.

I taua tau anō hoki, ka tautokona e Erueti te tono a Te Puea kia whakaurua atu a Tūrangawaewae ki roto i te rārangi o te wātaka a Pirinihi Riripeti rāua ko tana hoa tāne, kua whakaritea mō rāua i a rāua e huri haere ana i te whenua. Otirā, i peka atu a Riripeti (ko ia te Kuini hou i taua wā) rāua ko te Tiuka o Ētinapara (Edinburgh) mō tētehi wā poto i tā rāua toronga mai i te tau 1953, me te tūtaki anō hoki ki te Kīngi Māori. I muri iho, i Te Kūiti, i tukua atu a Erueti rāua ko Matatira ki te aroaro o te Kuini.

Nō te tau 1954, i tupuheke haere ai te ora o Erueti, ahakoa anō te haere tonu o āna mahi i runga i ngā komiti maha, ā, i mate ia i te hōhipera i Kirikiriroa (Hamilton) i te 6 o Mei i te tau 1958. Mahue mai ana ko tana wahine rātou ko tā rāua tamāhine, ko ā rāua tama tokowhā. E whakatikatika ana te whānau rā ki te whakatau i te tini e haere ake ana ki te tangihanga, ēngari kua oti kē i a Kīngi Korokī me tōna iwi te hari te tūpāpaku ki Ngāruawāhia. He tikanga tēnei nā te Māori, kāore hoki e taea e te whānau te aha. I taua wā anō taihoa pākia anō te whānau e te mate kino kē atu, ka hinga nei tō rātou whanaunga tata a Tokoroa Poihipi. Kawea ana hoki tōna tūpāpaku ki Ngāruawāhia ika huirua ai rāua ko Erueti. I te tangihanga e whā rā te roa, ka kōrerotia e Hāre te hiahia o te whānau ki te whakahoki i te ika huirua nei ki te kāinga kia tāpukena ai i waenganui whānau. Kei te mōhio tonu ia kāore e taea te pēwhea, he takahi tikanga hoki. I tanumia rāua tahi ki Taupiri. I te matenga o Matatira i te tau 1963 ka tanumia hoki ki reira.

Ko ngā kaumātua i mahi tahi me Hāre Rēweti e mōhio ana ki tōna pānga atu ki ngā kaupapa i kōkiritia e Erueti. Ka tau tā rātou kōrero kia riro ko ia hei tētē kura whakakī i te whārua i mahue ake i tōna tuakana. I whakaae a Hāre ahakoa anō te horokukū. I a ia e taiohi ana, he mahi pāmu, he mahi kāmura, he parakimete āna mahi. I uru hoki ia ki te ope taua me tōna teina me Tāmati i waenganui o te tau 1918, ka whakawhiti ki Ingarangi i te 3 o Oketopa, tae rawa atu kua mutu kē te whawhai. Ka hoki mai anō rāua ki te kāinga, he mahi parakimete, mahi kāmura te mahi hei whakanui ake i ā rāua moni whiwhi.

Ka tūtaki nei a Hāre ki a Edith Florence Servaes (ko Peel tōna īngoa takakau), he nēhi Ingarihi, pū ana te aroha. I te tīmatanga o te wā o te korekore ka neke rāua ki Ahitereiria, ā, i reira whānau ai tā rāua huatahi, a John Charles. Tekau mā tahi ngā tau rāua i tērā whenua, momoho ana tana mahi kāmura i reira. I te matenga o Hōhepa i te tau 1940 ka hoki mai rāua ki Waitomo.

Tere tonu te kite a Hāre kāore e ora ngā whānau e rua, i te iti rawa o ngā pāmu e rua ko Hōhepa i te whakahaere i te wā e ngaro ana a Hāre. Ka hokona atu e Hāre tana pāmu ki ana irāmutu, ka hokona mai he whenua i Te Kūiti, ā, tere ana tana whakatū i tana pakihi kāmura. Nā Tāmati i whakahaere ngā kirimina i waho i te tāone, kia wātea ai a Hāre ki ngā mahi taitapa, ā-pukapuka hoki a te pakihi. Ka huakina e Edith he hōhipera whakawhānau pēpi. Tokorua ngā tamariki he mea tiki e ia hei whāngai māna.

Mate rawa ake a Erueti, kua uru kē a Hāre ki ngā mahi a te iwi. I te tau 1949, ka whakahēngia e ia te take a te kāwanatanga ki te whakatū whakataunga ā-iwi ki te whiriwhiri mehemea ka noho waipiro kore tonu te Rohe Pōtae. Ahakoa te whakahē a te hunga i raro i a Te Puea, i mau tonu te whakataunga. Nōna ka eke atu ki te Kaunihera Māori o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Māori Council) hei māngai mō Ngāti Maniapoto, kawea ana e ia te nui o ngā mahi a tōna tuakana, pērā i ngā kaupapa mātauranga mō ngā pakeke Māori, me ngā raruraru e pā ana ki ngā whenua kāore i te whakamahia. Ka tīmata hoki tana mahi i runga i te komiti tohutohu mō ngā kōrero tawhito me ngā whakapapa i waihangatia e Te Puea.

Nōna ka tū nei hei tiamana mō te rōpū o te Ope Taua 28 (Māori) o Aotearoa (28th New Zealand (Māori) Battalion Association), pau ana tōna kaha ki ngā mahi a tēnei rōpū. Tū pai ana i a ia te huihuinga a taua rōpū ki Te Kūiti. Ko te kaitiaki anō hoki ia mō te marae o Te Kūiti – mō Te Tokanganui-a-noho, ā, ko ia hoki tētehi o te hunga i tohe kia wehea he wāhanga o te whenua o te marae mō ngā mōrehu tāne, wāhine o te pakanga. Nāna i whakanekeneke, nāna hoki i hanga te whare nui i Maketū, i Kāwhia, ko Auau-ki-te-rangi te īngoa, i ngā tau tuatahi o te tekau tau atu i 1960. Kei runga ake i te marae ko tētehi pukepuke, ko Ahurei te īngoa; he mea hanga i reira te tūāhu tuatahi i te taenga mai o Tainui waka. Kei raro iho, kei te raki, e tāpuke ana a Tainui. Ko Ahurei te tūtei tautiaki i a rātou katoa. Ko te whakamutunga o ngā mahi nui a Hāre i te tekau tau atu i 1960, ko te whakaaraara i te Kaupapa Mātauranga mō te Iwi Māori (Māori Education Foundation) i waenganui i tōna iwi. Pau katoa tana kaha ki te mahi, tū noa taua kaupapa, ka kitea nei ko ia tētehi o ngā pou whakatū.

Nō te 11 o Oketopa i te tau 1962, i Kirikiriroa, i whakamanatia tō rāua moenga ko Edith Servaes. Nō te 22 o Hūrae i te tau 1964 i mate ai a Hāre ki Te Kūiti. I Tokanganui-a-noho tōna tangihanga, ka tanumia ki te urupā o ngā hōia i hoki mōrehu mai, i whai wāhi ai ia ki te whakatakoto. I te matenga o Edith i te tau 1975, he mea tāpuke anō hoki ia ki taua urupā.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Te Aue Davis. 'Davis, Charles Richard and Davis, Edward Charles', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4d6/davis-charles-richard (accessed 20 January 2020)