Kōrero: Te Rangimārie, Puna Hīmene

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Te Rangimarie, Puna Himene

fl. 1908–1911

He kaiwhakaora, he nēhi, he kaingārahu taha wairua

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Sally Maclean,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1996.

Koia tēnei te whakaahua mai a tētehi pirihimana kaiuiui i a Puna Hīmene Te Rangimārie, arā, kāore anō ia kia tūtaki ki tētehi atu wahine Māori e rite ana te kakama ki tō Puna. Ko Puna tonu tētehi o ngā tāngata tuatahi kia hāmenetia i raro i te mana o te Ture Whakamutu Tohunga (Tohunga Suppression Act) 1907. He paku rawa atu ngā kōrero mō tōna takenga mai. I te tau 1910, ko te whakaaturanga mōna, ko ia he taitamāhine moe tāne; ko Hopu Ngā Oka te īngoa o tōna hoa. Mō ētehi tau ko Meremere pā, e pātata ana ki Pātea i te rohe whaka-te-tonga o Taranaki, tōna kāinga noho. E tinga anō he uri ia nō Ngā Rauru, nō Ngāti Ruanui kē rānei.

Ko ngā tau potapotae o 1908 te wā i tīmata ai te mahi kaiwhakaora a Puna. Riro ana ko te wairua o te tūpāpaku o tōna tuakana, o tōna teina kē rānei, ki te āwhina i a ia kia kitea ai he aha te mate o te tangata e haere mai ana ki te kimi painga i a ia. Ko rātou e pāngia ana e te mate Māori (arā, he mate i takea mai i te ao wairua) nāna tonu i mahi. Ko ētehi atu, ka tonoa e ia ki te tākuta Pākehā. He maha tonu ngā wā i tapuhitia ai e ia ana tūroro i tōna kāinga ake. Kīhai te hunga kore moni i meinga kia utu i a ia, ā, nāna i whakahaere tētehi komiti hei whakamāmā ake i ngā utu a ngā tūroro e pīrangi rongoā Pākehā ana, e pīrangi ana rānei mā te Pākehā rātou e tiaki.

I tētehi wā atu i 1908 ki 1910, ka tangohia e ia a Hīmene hei īngoa mōna. Hei tāna, koia tēnei te īngoa o tana tuakana, teina rānei i mate rā. Tērā kē pea koia tēnei tētehi whakamāoritanga i te īngoa Simmons, te īngoa o te tākuta i Pātea e noho ana. He maha noa ngā tūroro i tiaki tahi ai rāua ko W. T. Simmons. Tapuhitia ai e Puna ngā tūroro a Simmons i ngā wā e hiahiatia ana e tērā, me te whakatutuki anō hoki āna i ngā tohutohu a tērā. Ko te whakapono o Simmons, ka nui kē ake ngā painga ake o Puna ki te iwi kāinga, nā te mea, āpiti atu ki tana tū hei kaikōrero mō te turaki i te waipiro, ko ia anō i te whakaū i te tikanga parukore me te tohutohu i te kino o te kai paipa. Ā, tua atu i tēnā, nāna i whakahauhau te iwi kāinga kia whakaparahakotia ngā akoranga whakapono a Te Whiti-o-Rongomai rāua ko Tohu Kākahi. Ko te mea hoki, kua oti kē i a Puna a ia anō te whakatū hei pou tokonga i te taha wairua mō tāna kaupapa ake. Ko te 'porohita o roto ake' te īngoa i tapaina ki ana apataki. He mea iriiri e Puna ētehi, hoatu ana anō he īngoa hou mō rātou.

Hohoro ana te horanga o tōna rongonui. Nō Tūranga (Gisborne) rawa ētehi o ngā tūroro nā rātou i takahi mai te huarahi ki Meremere pā. Ko te hauora kē o te Pākehā te maimoa tika mā te nuinga o rātou, ēngari nā te kore tonu i taea te aha, i waiho ai kia noho tonu. He mea mōrearea ki te hauora o te iwi kāinga ngā mate mauhoro e whakataumaha ana i aua tūroro. Nō te tata paunga o te tau 1909, ka heria atu tētehi taitama nō Waitōtara kia mahia e ia. He taipō piwa tana mate. Nā te urutā o te tahumaero puta noa i te pā, e kino nei ki te patu tangata, i kipakipa te komiti marae. Riro ana ko te Kaunihera Māori o te Takiwā o Taranaki (Taranaki District Māori Council) te huarahi whakatakotoria atu ai ki ngā pirihimana te whakapaenga i a Puna. I tā rātou āta tirohanga anō, ka kitea he kōpaka rawa ngā whakaaturanga hei whiu i a Puna i raro i te Ture Whakamutu Tohunga.

Nō Maehe o 1910, ka hemo mai i te pā tētahi wahine i haria atu i Whanganui ki a Puna. Nā ngā whakaaturanga o muri mai te kī he tahumaero whakamate tonu te mate o taua wahine nei, ā, kāore he mea iti, paku nei i pahure i ngā rongoā Māori, Pākehā rānei hei whakaora mai i a ia. Hei aha koa, nā taua mate nei ka wātea anō te komiti marae ki te tono ki ngā pirihimana kia hoki atu anō. Hei rautupu māna i ngā mema o te komiti, ka whakamātauria e Puna kia riro mā tana apataki rātou e turaki.

I taua wā nei, ka riro mai i ngā pirihimana he kōrero whakaatu a tētehi tonu o ngā apataki muhumuhu a Puna. Nāna te whakapae nā Puna i whakahauhau kia whakarērea a ia e tana wahine, i runga i te whakamataku a Puna ka hemo tana wahine mehemea kāore ia e whakapono ki tōna mana whakaora. Ka whakatika atu a Kātipa Thomas Hickman, te tiamana o te Kaunihera Māori o te Takiwā o Taranaki, rātou ko ētehi mema o te komiti marae o te wā kāinga, ki te kāinga o Puna ki te whakawāwā i a ia. Ko te kī a Puna, he whanaunga taua wahine rā nōna, ā, i haere atu ki te kimi punanga mōna i muri mai i te patunga a tana tāne i a ia. Na, i mua i te pahuretanga o ngā rā ruarua nei i muri mai i te whakahokitanga atu o taua wahine nei ki tana tāne, ka takoto tana kupu ki te aroaro o te komiti marae e tautoko ana i te whakapaenga a tana tāne i a Puna.

Nō muri iho, ka whakaae a Timi Kara (James Carroll) kia hāmenetia a Puna e te ture. Koia ēnei ngā kupu whakapae ki a ia i rangona i te aroaro o te Kōti Kaiwhakawā (Magistrate's Court) o Te Hāwera i te Hepetema o 1910, arā, nā tana mahi ki te whāngai i ō rātou whakataputaputanga, i ō rātou whakapono tūpato-kore rānei, i taiope atu ai ngā Māori ki a ia, ā, nāna rātou i whakakotiti nā runga i tana kī kei a ia te mana poutiriao ki te whakapai, ki te whakaora rānei i te tahumaero. He mea whakaatu ki te kōti te āhua o te mahi a Puna ki te tātari i te mate me āna mahi maimoa, tae atu ki tana whakakaukau i ngā tūroro i rō wai mātao me te whakainu i a rātou ki tētehi pota pōta wāina. Nā Simmons i whakatakoto tētehi whakaaturanga e tautāwhi ana i a Puna, ā, i whakaae anō a James Siddells, te pirihimana kairapuhara nāna i whakahaere te whiu a te ture, arā, he painga tonu pea i puta ake i āna nei mahi. Ēngari, ka kī anō ia, kua whakataua kētia e te ture te whakarite kia whakakorea ngā mahi tohunga, ā, hei painga tonu mō te Māori kia whakamutua taua kaupapa nei.

I whakaharaina a Puna mō te whakapaenga tuatahi; he mea unu te tuarua. Tekau pāuna te rahi o te whiunga a te kaiwhakawā i a ia. Nō te tohutohutanga atu kia unuhia e ia te pou toko o tana mana poutiriao, kore rawa ia i whakaae. Nō te mea hoki, hei tāna, tē taea e ia te kōrero teka atu ki tōna iwi. Heoti, i whakaae a Puna ki te whakarere i āna mahi whakaora ā-wairua, ā, whakapau kē ana i ōna kaha ki te tapuhi tūroro. Ko te tukunga iho o te whakawākanga i mataku ai a Siddells, kei kaha kē ake te ū o te mana o Puna i waenga i tōna iwi kāinga. Tē taea te whakahē, he maha tonu ngā Māori i whakaaro kīhai i tika te whakataunga a te ture i a ia. Nā te kotahi rau o rātou o Meremere, me ngā kāinga e pātata atu ana, te reta ki a Timi Kara e tautoko ana i ngā mahi pai a Puna, me te tono kia rēhitatia a ia hei nēhi. Ko te whakahoki mai a Timi Kara, me puta rā anō a Puna i ngā whakamātautauranga nēhi, kātahi anō ia ka āhei kia rēhitatia, otiia, ka whakaaetia āna mahi tapuhi mehemea ka whakamutua e ia āna mahi tohunga.

I puta ake te rongo kōrero whakamutunga mō Puna Hīmene Te Rangimārie i tētehi reta nāna i tuhi ki a Timi Kara i te tau i muri mai. I kī atu ia ki a ia kei te tika tana mau i a ia, ā, e tonoa ana e ia ana tūroro ki te tākuta Pākehā. Ko te āhua nei ko ia anō tētehi i haere ki te rata Pākehā, nā te mea, kei ngā tatauranga hauora a Simmons mō 1911 te tuhinga e pā ana ki tana maimoatanga i te mate kōpito o tētehi wahine e 25 tau te pakeke, ko Puna te īngoa. Kāore he kōrero kē atu i tuhia mōna, ā mate noa.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Sally Maclean. 'Te Rangimārie, Puna Hīmene - Te Rangimarie, Puna Himene', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1996. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/3t17/te-rangimarie-puna-himene (accessed 20 November 2019)