Kōrero: Whaanga, Īhaka

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Whaanga, Ihaka

?–1875

Nō Ngāti Rākaipaaka, nō Ngāti Kahungunu; he kaihautū, he āteha, he kaiārahi o roto i ngā whawhai

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

I whānau mai a Īhaka Whaanga i te tōnga o ngā rā o te rau tau 1700–1799. He tama ia nā Te Rātāu o Ngāti Rākaipaaka me Ngāti Kahungunu. I mate a Te Rātāu, ā, kainga atu hoki i Ōhiwa i tētahi pakanga ki a Te Whakatōhea me Mātenga Tūkareaho o Nūhaka, he whanaunga tonu nōna. Ko Īhaka Whaanga te pōtiki me te mōrehu o ngā tama tokoono a Te Rātāu rāua ko Kainga.

Kei te ngaro ngā kōrero mō Whaanga i te wā i pakanga haere ai a Ngā Puhi i roto o Ngāti Kahungunu ki Heretaunga i Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay) i roto i te tekau tau atu i 1820. I taua wā ka tae ake tētahi Pākehā ki Te Māhia, ko J. W. Harris, ā, ko Hāre tōna īngoa e mōhiotia ana e Whaanga. Ko te īngoa o te kaipuke o te Pākehā nei, ko Fanny. He rite tonu tana hokihoki mai ki te rohe o Te Māhia, ki te hokohoko pū me ngā paura kariri mō aua pū; ki te hoko harakeke hoki. Nō te tūranga o te teihana tohorā o Te Māhia i te tau 1837, ka noho ko Whaanga tonu hei kaitiaki, ā, tae rawa atu ki te tau 1851, he nui tonu ngā kaiwhaiwhai tohorā e noho ana i raro i tana maru, arā, 140 ngā Pākehā, 280 ngā Māori. He tangata atawhai a Whaanga, ā, i mōhiotia whānuitia mō tana kaha ki te manaaki tangata, ahakoa ko wai, Pākehā atu, Māori atu rānei.

I te taenga ake o Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), he takawaenga hoko whenua nā te kāwanatanga i te tau 1851, ka tūtaki a ia ki a Whaanga. Ko tana īngoa i mōhio ai i taua wā ko Īhaka (Isaac), ā, ki te whakaaro tērā kua noho Karaitiana kē a Īhaka i taua wā. Ki a Te Mākarini, ko Whaanga tonu te tino rangatira o ngā pā o Te Māhia. Ā, i taua wā, ka mea a Whaanga me ētahi atu rangatira o Te Māhia, i tētahi poraka whenua kaitā tonu, ki te hoko atu ki te kāwanatanga. Otirā, kāore a Te Mākarini i whakaae i taua wā.

Ko Whaanga, he tangata titiro whakamua, ā, me tana hiahia hoki kia whaihua te iwi i roto i ngā mahi hokohoko a te Pākehā. Nā reira i tautoko ai a ia i ngā whakahaere a te Pākehā. I te 1 o Hānuere 1863, he mea whakatū a ia hei āteha i raro i te mana o te Ture Whakarite Kōti Māori (Native Circuit Courts Act) 1858. Ko ngā mahi o tēnei tūranga he whakaū i ngā whakahau a te ture, ā, he mahi i ētahi o ngā mahi a te kaiwhakawā ā-rohe. Ko tana utu £30 ia tau. Kāti, i te tau 1863, i te noho anipā a ngā Pākehā i roto i tērā takiwā o Te Matau-a-Māui ki ngā kōhimuhimu kei te tino pakari haere te Kīngitanga; nā Whaanga i whakamahea tō rātau mānukanuka. Nā te mea i tino kauhau a ia ki ngā iwi, me noho kotahi rātau i runga i te rangimārie.

Na, i te tau 1864, ka tīmata te kōmihana hoko whenua, a Samuel Locke, ki te kōrero whiriwhiri ki a Whaanga me ētahi atu rangatira, mō te hoko whenua i roto i ngā takiwā o Te Māhia me Nūhaka. Ahakoa i tino kōrapa tonu a Whaanga nā te mea he tino whānui tonu te whenua e hiahia ana te takawaenga a te Karauna ki te hoko, i whakaae tonu a ia kia hokona 16,000 eka o te poraka whenua o Te Māhia. Tētahi o ngā take i hokona ai ēnei whenua, nā te mea i te hiahia a Whaanga kia mōhio mai te kāwanatanga kei te tautoko atu a ia me tana iwi i a rātau. E ai ki te āhua noho o ngā iwi o tērā rohe i taua wā, mehemea ka hokona e rātau te whenua ki te kāwanatanga, kāti kei te tautoko rātau i te Kuini. Ēngari, ko te hunga kāore e hoko whenua ana ka kitea kua huri kē rātau ki te taha o te Kīngi Māori me te Pai Mārire. I whakahē ētahi o ngā kaihautū o Te Tai Rāwhiti, tae atu ana ki a Wī Pere me ētahi o roto o Rongowhakaata, i te mana hoko whenua o Whaanga. Ka tū tētahi hui ki Waiwhara, i te rae o Te Māhia, ā, i reira ka anga ngā hoariri o Whaanga ki te whakahau me kohikohi ngā moni i utua mō te poraka o Te Māhia, ka whakahoki ki te kāwanatanga. I tua atu i tēnei i mea anō rātau kia whakaae katoa rātau ki te aukati i ngā mahi hoko whenua ā muri atu. Heoi anō, nā Whaanga rāua ko Pāora Te Apatū i kī atu, kua riro kē aua whenua i te Karauna. Na, i runga i tana whakapono kei te takatū a Rongowhakaata ki te tīmata pakanga mō te take hoko whenua nei, ka tono a Whaanga ki a Locke kia hōmai e te kāwanatanga he pū, kia taea ai e rātau te ātete i te hoariri.

I te tīmatanga o 1865, ka tae ake ētahi waha kōrero i Waikato mō te Pai Mārire, ki roto ki tērā takiwā o Te Matau-a-Māui, kauhau ai. Otirā kua whakaritea kētia e Locke me haere tangata atu rāua ko Whaanga kia kite i a Te Hāpuku o Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti, tō rātau kaitiaki. I roto o Te Wairoa, he tokomaha tonu ngā tāngata kua huri kē ki te kaupapa Pai Mārire. Otirā ko Whaanga, i noho pūmau ki tana whakahē i taua hāhi hou. Ko ngā rangatira i tautoko i te kāwanatanga, i hui i te 24 o Maehe. I hui ai rātau nā tō rātau whakaaro he iti noa iho rātau e whakahē ana i te Pai Mārire, ā, rokohanga kāore tonu rātau i te tino mōhio tokohia o ō rātau whanaunga kua huri kē ki taua hāhi. I taua marama tonu ka tae mai ki te ringa o Whaanga ngā pū a te kāwanatanga, o aua pū 60 he Enfield, kotahi he pū poto (carbine). Nā konei i kaha ai a Whaanga rāua ko Pāora Rerepū ki te haere kanohi atu ki te Kīngitanga me ngā kaiāwhina o te Pai Mārire o te rohe o Ahuriri (Napier), i te hui i tū ki Matiti. Na, ka utaina e Whaanga he kupu whakapae, whakahāwea hoki ki runga i a rātau; noho wahangū ana te hunga rā. I te marama o Mei ka peka ake a Te Mākarini ki tana pā. Kua noho kaiwhakahaere-a-porowini a Te Mākarini mō te porowini o Te Matau-a-Māui i taua wā. Nā konei, ka tino piki ake te mana o Whaanga, ka kaha kē ake te tautoko a te kāwanatanga i tā rātau tangata.

Kāti, hei āta titiro pēhea ake te whānuitanga o ngā kaitautoko o te Pai Mārire, ka tū tētahi hui ki Te Māhia o ngā iwi Māori o te pito o Te Māhia me te tahatai o Te Wairoa, tae atu ana ki Nūhaka. Ki tā Whaanga, mehemea ka mōhio a ia ko wai mā kei te whai i te Kīngitanga me te Pai Mārire, ka taea e ia te whakaemi te toenga ki te whawhai i te hoariri mehemea ka whakaeke mai rātou ki runga ki taua rohe. Hei tino whakamātau i te pono o te tangata he mea whakahaere tonu te kupu oati, ā, he maha tonu te hunga ahakoa e noho ngākau rua ana i te tuatahi, i whakaae. I muri mai i te hui ka haere a Locke me tana ope tautoko 80, he pū ā rātau, ki Whakakī i te tahatai o Te Wairoa. Tō rātau taenga atu, e rere tonu ana te haki o te Pai Mārire. Kātahi ka topea taua haki, me te tautohe a Locke me tana ope taua me tino whakaae te iwi kāinga o te Whakakī ki te kupu oati. I mahia tēnei mahi e Locke rāua ko Whaanga ki ngā pā katoa o te tonga. Tae rawa atu rātau ki roto o Te Wairoa he tokomaha tonu ngā tāngata kua huri kē mai i te Pai Mārire me te Kīngitanga.

Na, i te marama i muri mai, ka haere a Whaanga ki te taha o Kōpū Parapara rāua ko Meiha Pereiha (James Fraser), ko rāua nei ngā kaihautū o te ope hōia o reira e mea ana ki te whawhai i ngā Hauhau o Te Wairoa. Nā rātau ko Rāpata Wahawaha me tana ope taua o Ngāti Porou i pana atu ngā Hauhau ki waho o Ōmaruhākeke. I te marama o Hānuere 1866, nā Kōpū rāua ko Whaanga i arataki tētahi ope taua o Ngāti Kahungunu ki roto ki te takiwā o Waikaremoana. Ko Rāpata Wahawaha me tāna ake ope taua i tūtaki ki te hunga Hauhau i te tuatahi. Ēngari, nā te mea nō Kōpū rāua ko Whaanga te whenua i roto rātau e pakanga ana, ka tukuna e Rāpata Wahawaha mā tā rāua ope e arataki ngā ope katoa ki te whawhai. Tō rātau urunga atu ki roto ki te kōaka o Te Kōpane ka wepua ngā ope a Kōpū rāua ko Whaanga e te taumahatanga o te pupuhi o ngā pū a te hoariri, ā, ka noho pōnānā, rangirua katoa rātau. I rere takamua a Whaanga ki te arataki i tana ope taua, me tana whakahau kia haere mārō tonu rātau ki waenganui i te hoariri pakanga ai. Otiia, kāore i tautokotia tana karanga. I a ia e tū tahanga ana ko ia anake, i te pupuhi tonu a ia i tana pū poto. Ka pā a Whaanga i te matā i tana huakuru, ka whara. Otirā, ka kapongia atu e ia tētahi pū anō ka tīmata anō te pupuhi. I tēnei wā, ka whara ko tana waewae i te matā a te hoariri. Nā ka hinga a Whaanga. Oma tika tonu mai tana iwi ki a ia i tō rātau kitenga kua hinga a ia, ā, nā rātau i mau ki tētahi wāhi whakaruruhau. Nō muri mai nā Rāpata Wahawaha me tana ope i patu te hoariri, ā, i wetekina ai te mana o te hunga Hauhau i runga i ngā iwi o te whenua whakaroto o Te Wairoa.

Nā konei i hoatu ai te kāwanatanga i ētahi takoha kai ki te iwi o Whaanga. Tērā pea nā ngā hua i puta mō te hokonga o te poraka whenua o Te Māhia, ka taea e Whaanga te hoko mai i tētahi kaipuke mōna, i 1865. I muri mai, i te marama o Ākuhata 1866, ka mea a ia ki te haere ki Ahuriri ki te rapa kāpene mō tana kaipuke, nā te mea kua whakaaro kē hoki a Whaanga ki te tono i tana kaipuke ki Rēkohu, arā, ki Wharekauri (Chatham Islands), ki te tiki i ētahi o ana whanaunga, i haere rā ki reira whaiwhai tohorā ai. Ahakoa i whakahē a Locke ki ana tohatoha moni i te tāone, ehara a Whaanga i te tangata moumou moni. I a ia e whakahaere ana i ngā whiriwhiri mō te hokohoko whenua ki a Locke, nāna i āta whakatika ki te hoko mai anō i te 600 eka i Waikōkopu, mōna me tana iwi.

Na, e iwa marama pea e noho ana te iwi i runga i te rangimārie ka whakaeke ngā kaitautoko o te Pai Mārire ki runga ki te pā o Ōmarunui, i kō tata mai o Ahuriri, i te marama o Hepetema 1866. Ko te hunga nei, nō te hapū o Ngāti Hineuru, hapū o Te Hāroto me Tarawera. Kāti, nā tēnei ka whakaaro ngā Pākehā me ngā Māori tērā he tohu tēnei kei te takatū ngā Hauhau ki te whakaeke ki runga ki Ahuriri. Na, ka puta te tono ki a Kōpū Parapara me Whaanga kia haere mai me ō rāua ope taua ki Ahuriri. I takahi tika tonu mai rātau tae mai ana ki Ahuriri i te 11 o Oketopa 1866. Kātahi rātau ka porotūtaki ki te ope hōia a Rūtene Kānara G. S. Whitmore, ka takahi rangatū rātau katoa i te pō, ka riro i a rātau te pā o Ōmarunui i te aonga ake o te rā. Ko Whaanga tonu tētahi o ngā rangatira tokowhā i whakaingoatia e Whitmore i roto i ana pānui hōnore, nā te mea he tino toa hoki i roto i ngā pakanga.

Nā te whakaeketanga a Te Kooti ki runga ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa (Poverty Bay), i Noema 1868, i whakararuraru te noho rangimārie i waenganui i ngā iwi. Kātahi ka haere te ope a Whaanga ki te porotūtaki i ētahi atu ope, ka whāia a Te Kooti ki Mākāretu, tae rawa atu ana ki Ngātapa. Otirā, nā te mea i te noho taupatupatu a Tāreha Te Moananui rāua ko Rāpata Wahawaha, ka whakahokia e Tāreha ētahi o te ope taua o Ngāti Kahungunu ki te kāinga. He maha tonu rātau i hoki. Ēngari ko Whaanga, i noho tonu, ā, i haere a ia i te taha o Rāpata Wahawaha ki te tuki i te hoariri i Ngātapa i te 5 o Tīhema 1868. I te marama o Āperira, i te wā i whakaeke ai a Te Kooti i te pā o Hiruhārama me Te Huki, i te wahapū o te awa o Mōhaka, nā Whaanga i arataki tētahi ope taua ki te whawhai i a Te Kooti i Hiruhārama. Mō ēnei mahi a Whaanga i piripono nei ki te kāwanatanga, nā rātou i hoatu tētahi hoari hōnore ki a ia.

Kāti, i haere tonu ngā amuamu mō ngā hokohoko whenua, tae rā anō ki te mutunga o te tekau tau atu i 1860, ā, i mau tonu a Whaanga ki roto ki ēnei tūāhuatanga. I te tau 1873 i tino kaha a ia ki te ārai i a Hēnare Matua, i a ia e tohutohu ana i te iwi o Te Wairoa, o Nūhaka me Te Māhia kia kaua rātau e hoko whenua anō. I tua atu i tēnei, nāna anō i whakahau te hunga i whakaae kia rere ngā waea kawe kōrero ki runga i ō rātau whenua, kāore he utu rēti, he kamupeneheihana rānei, kia whakakorea aua whakaae. Ko Whaanga tētahi o ngā rangatira tokotoru kāore i haina i te petihana whakarāpopoto amuamu, nā te Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua (Repudiation Movement) nāna i pānui ki te kāwanatanga.

Kāore i tuhia ki roto i tētahi pukapuka rekoata te īngoa o te wahine, ngā wāhine rānei a Whaanga. Ko te mea pakeke o ana tama, a Hirini Te Rito, i moe i te tamāhine a John Smith, he tangata whaiwhai tohorā.

I mate mai a Īhaka Whaanga ki Te Māhia i te 14 o Tīhema 1875, ā, he mea tāpuke i runga i tētahi maunga tū tahanga noa iho i te kōmata tonga o te pito o Te Māhia. Nā runga i te whaiwhakaaro o Samuel Locke, ka tū tētahi pōhatu ki roto o Nūhaka hei whakamaumahara ki a Whaanga.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Whaanga, Īhaka - Whaanga, Ihaka', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1w15/whaanga-ihaka (accessed 24 August 2019)