Kōrero: Taiwhanga, Rāwiri

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Taiwhanga, Rawiri

fl. 1818–1874

Nō Ngā Puhi; he rangatira, he mihinare, he kaiwhakaako, he kaipāmu

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Claudia Orange and Ormond Wilson, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga, 1990.

Ko Taiwhanga he uri nō Tamakiterā. Ko ōna mātua ko Tawatawa rāua ko tana wahine, ko Wāhi. Ko tōna hapū ko Ngāti Tautahi o Te Uri-o-Hua nō Ngā Puhi, ki Kaikohe. Tokowhitu ngā tamariki a Taiwhanga rāua ko tana wahine mātua ko Māta Rawa o Te Arawa. Tokotoru i mate wawe. Nā tana wahine iti, nā Mere, ko tā rāua tamaiti kotahi.

Nō te mea he rangatira, he toa taua a Taiwhanga nā Hongi Hika ka uru ia ki te pakanga tuatahi a Ngā Puhi ki ngā iwi o Te Moana-a-Toi-te-huatahi (Bay of Plenty) i te tau 1818. I haere tonu tētahi wehenga o te taua nei ki Tapatahi, ki Tokomaru. I reira ka whakaekea te pā, ka tahuna ngā tūwatawata, ka horo.

I te tau 182l ka tīmata tana mahi i te mīhana i Kerikeri. Ko John Butler te mihinare i taua wā. Kore i roa kua riro mā Taiwhanga e whakahaere ngā mahi ahu whenua. Ki tā Butler, kua mātau hoki ki te para i te whenua hei māra kai, hei whakatipu wīti, ka tapahi, ka wehewehe i ngā pata hei mahi parāoa pūrere. Ko tana utu he toki Pākehā ia marama. Āpiti atu hoki, ko tana mīharo ki ngā whakahaere a ngā mihinare – ki ngā mea tauhou, ngā taputapu, ā rātou kai i whakatipu ai, me ā rātou kararehe. I mau katoa i a ia, ka noho ia hei tohunga mō aua mahi. Ka kite atu tana rahinga, ka whai atu kia mau hoki i a rātou ērā whakahaere.

I muri mai, i te tau 1822 pea, ka nuku a Taiwhanga ki Parramatta i Ahitereiria, ka noho ki te minita whakahaere o New South Wales i reira, ki a Te Mātenga (Samuel Marsden). Kātahi ka tino nekehia atu tōna mātauranga ki ngā mahi ahu whenua, mahi pāmu, aha ake, aha ake. Tata ki te 18 marama tana noho i Ahitereiria, ka hoki mai i te taha i a Hōri Karaka (George Clarke) i Maehe o 1824, mā runga i te manuao a ngā Wīwī, ko La Coquille. He tangata mātau ki te waihanga pū a Hōri Karaka. I te taenga mai, ka haere a Taiwhanga ki Kerikeri mō te wā poto ki te mahi mā Te Rēweti (Richard Davis). He mihinare kē anō tērā.

Ka taka ki te tau 1825, ka riro anō i te ope taua a Hongi ki te pakanga ki a Ngāti Whātua i Te Ika-ā-ranganui i te awa o Kaiwaka pātata atu ki Mangawhai. I reira ka mau te rangatira o Ngā Puhi, a Moka. I roto i te mātotoru o te whawhai ka kahakina oratia mai a Moka e Taiwhanga. Ka hinga a Ngāti Whātua, ka whati, ka whāia, ka patua haeretia tae noa ki Rotorua. I roto i a Te Arawa, ka patua e Taiwhanga tētahi tangata me ana tamariki tokorua. Ko te wahine, ko Māta Rawa, i mau hereheretia e ia. Ka moea hei wahine māna. Pūmau tonu a Māta Rawa ki te āwhina i ngā mahi a Taiwhanga.

I te mutunga, whakarērea ana e Taiwhanga tērā mahi te haere ki te pakanga. Ka huri ki ngā mahi kani rākau i te mīhana i Paihia. I te āhuatanga o ngā Māori o tōna reanga e noho ana ki ngā mihinare, kua whai i ngā mahi Karaitiana, kua mau pūeru Pākehā, kua whai i ngā tikanga Pākehā katoa. He pakari, he hakahaka te tipu o Taiwhanga. He paruhi tana moko. Kua ako hoki i ana tamariki ki ngā tikanga Pākehā. Tētahi, kua whakaae ia ki tā ngā mihinare kia whakamutua te punarua. He whare raupō nei tō rāua ko Māta Rawa. Āu mahi a te tangata 'ringa raupā'! Kore i roa kua tipu he pītiti, he wāina, he wīti. I te whakapaunga o te tau 1826, tēnā noa atu te hua o ana kai – te rīwai, te kānga, te kamokamo, te paukena, te merengi, te aniana, te riki, te pī, me te pāhinipi. Noho ake ana hei tauira mā ētahi atu. Ko Māta, utua ai mō te horoi i ngā kākahu o ngā āpiha o ngā manuao, me ō ngā Pākehā noho i Paihia. I te weranga o tō rāua whare raupō i te tau 1829, waihangatia ana e Taiwhanga he whare hou kia rite ki ō ngā Pākehā. Tētahi mahi anō kua tino mātau a Taiwhanga, ko te tuhituhi reta. Nā reira ka whakatūngia ko ia hei kaitiaki mō te kura mīhana i Paihia mai i te tau 1830–1834.

Nō te mea kua roa te piringa o Taiwhanga ki ngā mihinare o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare (Church Missionary Society) ka iriirihia ana tamariki tokowhā i te tau 1829, i Paihia. E ono marama i muri mai, i te 7 o Pēpuere 1830, ko ia tonu i iriirihia ka tapaina ko Rāwiri. Nō te 19 o Hepetema ka whai atu hoki ko Māta. O ngā tāngata whai mana o te motu, ko Taiwhanga te mea tuatahi i huri ki te Whakapono. Ka noho hei āpotoro, hei kaikauwhau mō te Hāhi. Nāna te mahi ki te kauwhau ki ngā iwi kāinga o Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands), o Te Hokianga, o Whangaroa hoki. Ā, kawe kau ana ia i te Kupu i waenga tonu i ngā hēramana porohaurangi i Kororāreka. Nāna anō te karakia whakarite mō tētahi anō o rātou e whakahemohemo ana. I te tau 1831 ka haere a Taiwhanga i te taha o Te Hāpimana (Thomas Chapman) rāua ko Te Karu Whā (Henry Williams) ki te kawe i te Kupu a Te Karaiti ki ngā iwi o Tauranga, o Rotorua hoki. I ēnei whakaminenga ko Taiwhanga tonu te pūkōrero hei whakamārama i tā rātou kaupapa. Ko ngā whanaunga tonu o Māta ētahi. Nō taua wā anō rā, ka tupu tana whakaaro me tono kia manaakihia e te kāwanatanga o Ingarangi te iwi Māori. Kua kīia hoki kei te whakararuraru mai ngā Wīwī.

Ka taka ki te tau 1834 ka whakatika a Taiwhanga ki te mahi pāmu ki te taha rāwhiti o Kaikohe. Mō tētahi wā nei ka whakahaerengia e ia he kura, ēngari i whakapaua kē tana kaha ki te mahi pāmu. Ka riro mai he pāraharaha, ka tahuri ia ki te hanga parau māna. Tae rawa atu ki te whakamutunga o te tau 1835 e huri pata ana ia hei hoko. Kotahi tau i muri mai e 20 ana kau; ā, kei te hokona ana pata ki ngā kaihokohoko i Pēwhairangi.

Ko Māta, kua pāngia e te ū taetae. Ka pokaina tana ū e te tākuta i te tau 1834, ka kitea ko te mate pukupuku kē nei. Nō te tau 1837 ka mate.

Taka rawa atu ki te tau 1840, ruarua nei ngā hipi a Taiwhanga. Ā, kua hangaia he whare papa hou, me tōna timera. Ko ana pata i ngā tau e rima kua pahemo kua kawe kē te utu mai i te kotahi herengi ki te hāwhe-karauna mō te pāuna kotahi. Ko ia te tangata tuatahi tonu o tēnei whenua ki te hokohoko i ngā hua kau kutētē. Ko te kōrero a tētahi Pākehā o tōna reanga, he tangata pukumahi, he tangata hihiko a Taiwhanga ki te kawe tikanga hei mahi moni.

Na, ka tae ki te huinga o te iwi ki Waitangi kia kōrerohia te Tiriti, ko Taiwhanga tētahi i tautoko i a Hopihona (William Hobson) hei kāwana. Ka tuhia e ia tōna īngoa, ko Rāwiri, ki te Tiriti o Waitangi. I ngā tau pokapū o 1840, e pakanga ana ngā iwi o reira ki te Pākehā, ka tono ia ki a Pīhopa Herewini (G. A. Selwyn) kia āwhinatia tana kura. E noho ana te Pīhopa i Te Waimate i tērā wā. Kua mōhio kē anō rāua ki a rāua. E noho mōhio tonu ana hoki a Taiwhanga nā ngā pakanga i tūnguru ai te tangata ki te hāpai i te Whakapono. Ā, ko te tūmanako kia kore e hē rawa.

Ko tana tama, ko Tāmati Hirini (Thomas Sydney) i whai i ngā whakaritenga o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tekau tau mai i 1870. E ora tonu ana rānei a Taiwhanga i taua wā? Ko wai ka hua. Ko te kōrero whakamutunga mō Taiwhanga nā tētahi tohunga o Huitene. E ai ki a Sven Berggren, i tō rāua tūtakitanga ko Taiwhanga i Kaikohe i te tau 1874, kua huri kē te rau tau o taua kaumātua.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Claudia Orange and Ormond Wilson. 'Taiwhanga, Rāwiri - Taiwhanga, Rawiri', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t4/taiwhanga-rawiri (accessed 9 August 2020)