Kōrero: Taranui, Te Pōkiha

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Taranui, Te Pokiha

?–1901

Nō Te Arawa, nō Ngāti Pikiao; he kaingārahu, he toa

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Steven Oliver,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

Ko Te Pōkiha Taranui nō Ngāti Pikiao, karangatanga hapū o Te Arawa; he uri whakaheke nō Te Tākinga rāua ko Hineui.

Ko tana whaea ko Te Huruhuru, ko tana pāpā ko Taranui. I whānau pea a Te Pōkiha i Te Rotoiti i ngā tau tīmatanga o te rau tau ki muri nei. He mea tapa tōna īngoa ki a Te Pōkiha (Fox), i te wā pea i iririhia ai e ngā mihingare o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihingare (Church Missionary Society) i Rotorua, i Tarawera rānei. I te tau 1838, ko ia tētehi o ngā rangatira nāna a Ngāti Pikiao i taki i te whakaekenga i a Ngāti Tarāwhai, hapū o Te Arawa, i Okataina. I motumotu noa iho te whawhai, ā, hoki noa atu a Ngāti Pikiao ki Te Rotoiti. I nui ai a Te Pōkiha i roto i ngā whawhai mai i 1860, nā tana kaha ki te ārahi i ngā toa o Te Arawa ki te āwhina i te kāwanatanga ki te riri ki te Kīngitanga, ā, nō muri mai ki ngā whawhai ki te Hauhau, me Te Kooti rātau ko ana toa. Ko ana hīkoi, me ana whakatakoto tikanga i a ia e hōia ana he whakatūpato ki ana tangata, kei whara, kei mate rānei. I hau ai ōna rongo nā tōna toa ki te whawhai.

Nō te marama o Hānuere 1864, ka huihui ētehi ope taua o Te Tai Rāwhiti ki Matatā e tautoko ana i te Kīngitanga; e haere ana ki te āwhina i te Kāhui-ariki e whawhai ana ki a Rūtene Tianara Duncan Cameron kua tomo mai nei ki te rohe o Waikato. Kore rawa a Te Arawa i whakaae kia haere a Te Tai Rāwhiti mā waenganui o tōna rohe. Ka whakatūria e Tohi Te Ururangi o Ngāti Whakaue tana ope taua e 400 te tokomaha; ka hono atu a Te Pōkiha rātau ko tana iwi a Ngāti Pikiao. He mea hōmai he paura mā Te Arawa; ā, ka riro nā te kāwanatanga ia i taki i roto i ngā whawhai. Nō Maehe ka hinga te ope taua a Te Tai Rāwhiti i Taurua, i Te Rotoiti. Kātahi ka huri te ope rārā mā te takutai moana, arā mā Ōtamarākau; ka whāia e Te Arawa. Nō te 22 o Āperire, kua tae te riri ki te pūaha o Waihī, whaka ki te rāwhiti o Maketū. I kitea ai te toa o Te Pōkiha i tana rerenga tūpou e 200 iāri te tawhiti, e rere ana te matā a te hoariri, ki te āwhina i ana hoa Pākehā e noho mārakerake mai ana i waenga koraha. Nā tana kōrero, ka kore rātau e aro atu ki te tangi a te tētere kia taui rātau; i noho huna tonu rātau, ā, kua tata ki te tōnga o te rā kātahi anō ka wātea ki te hoki ki tō rātau matua. Nō te 27 o Āperire ka kōkiringia a Te Tai Rāwhiti ka makere atu i tō rātau nohanga; ka hoki whakamuri rātau, e whai haere ana i te tai moana me te rere mai o te matā i ngā manuao a te Pākehā ki te taipara i a rātau. Ka whakahē a Te Pōkiha i te kōrero a tētehi kia tukuna a Te Tai Rāwhiti kia hoki whakamuri. Ka tohe ia kia whāia haere tonutia. Ko te hinganga whakamutunga tērā o Te Tai Rāwhiti i Te Kaokaoroa i te 28 o Āperire.

Nō te tau 1865 ka haere a Te Pōkiha i te taha o Te Arawa me ētehi hōia a te kāwanatanga ki te whai i te Hauhau; ko rātau ētehi i patu te mihingare a Te Wākana (C. S. Völkner) i Ōpōtiki me Te Mautaranui (James Fulloon) i Whakatāne. Nō te 17 o Oketopa ka kuhu a Te Arawa mā te repo i te awa o Rangitāiki ki te karapoti i te pā i Te Teko. He whanaunga anō nō Te Pōkiha, i roto i te pā, i roto hoki i te pā o Pāharakeke paku iho nei, i tāwāhi atu o te awa. Nō te mea ko te hiahia a te kāwanatanga kia mau anake i a rātau te hunga mahi kōhuru rārā, ka whakawhiti a Te Pōkiha ki tāwāhi o te awa ki Pāharakeke ka tonoa kia whakamutua te tautohe. Nō te haurarotanga ka pērā anō te pā i Te Teko. Nā runga i tō rātau aroha ki te manaaki i te kāwanatanga i Whakatāne, ka kore a Te Arawa i whakatupu kai i te mea kua hipa kē te awe kāpara. Tae rawa ki waenganui o te tau o 1866 kua tino mate i te kore kai. Ko Te Pōkiha tētehi o ngā rangatira e iwa i tono ki te kāwanatanga kia whakarahingia ake tō rātau utu mō te riri ki Whakatāne. Ko te moni i utua mā te tangata kotahi mō te toru marama te roa, e £2 5s.

Nō Maehe o te tau 1867, nō te wā e ngaro ana a Te Arawa i Tauranga, ka whakaeke te Hauhau o Waikato ki Rotorua. Nō te āraitanga i te pā o Te Koutu, ka tahuri te Hauhau ki te hanga maioro mō te pā o Puraku e tata ana ki Te Tarukenga. Nō te whakaeketanga o ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga i Puraku ka tae atu a Ngāti Pikiao ki te haukoti i te hoariri kei hoki whakamuri; ko rātau ētehi i rere ki te whai. Nō muri mai i te pakanga nei ka riro nā Te Pōkiha ētehi ope taua o Te Arawa i ārahi ki Tauranga, e rūpeke ana te Hauhau ki reira. Heoi he iti noa iho ngā whawhai i taua wā. Nā te makeretanga mai o Te Kooti mā i te herehere i Rēkohu, arā ko Wharekauri (Chatham Islands) ka tau mai ki Te Tai Rāwhiti i Whareongaonga i te 10 o Hūrae 1868, ka tutū anō te puehu. Nō muri i te hinganga o tana ope taua i Ngātapa i Hānuere o 1869, ka tahuri a Te Kooti ki te whakarahi ake i tana taua i Te Urewera. Ka whakaekea e ia te rohe o Ngā Kurī-a-Whārei ki Tihirau (Bay of Plenty). Kātahi ka tae atu rātau ko ana toa 100 te tokomaha, ka whakaekea te pā o Rauporoa e tata ana ki Whakatāne, i Maehe. Ka taki oma ngā tāngata whaka ki Whakatāne. Nō te taenga o Te Arawa ki te āwhina i te taua a Te Mea (W. G. Mair) ka hoki whakamuri a Te Kooti ki te pā o Tauaroa i te riu o Rangitāiki, i te waha tonu o te awaawa o Horomanga. I whakahē a Te Pōkiha i te whakahau kia karapotia te pā e ana toa, te mea kua ahiahi, ā, he kore nō rātau i tino mārama ki aua whenua. Ka oma a Te Kooti ki Te Urewera, kore tonu a Te Arawa i pai ki te whai.

Nō te hekenga o Te Kooti i Te Urewera whaka–te-tonga ki te whakaeke i a Mōhaka i Āperire o 1869 ka whakaaro te kāwanatanga ki te whakamutu i ēnei whakawhawhai; kātahi rātau ka noho i runga i ngā hiwi ka whakaeke i ngā iwi o Tūhoe e āwhina ana i a Te Kooti. Ko Te Pōkiha tētehi o ngā kaiārahi o Te Arawa i hīkoi atu i Karatia (Fort Galatea) ki Te Urewera i te 4 o Mei i te taha o te ope o Kānara G. S. Whitmore. Ka horo a Ahikererū me Te Hārema, ā, ahakoa ngā whakatenetene ka mārō te haere ki Ruatāhuna me te puhipuhi haere i ngā wāhi o te huarahi e uru rākau ana, ā, e whakaarohia ana he hoariri kei reira e huna ana. Ka tae te ope nei ki te riu o Ruatāhuna i te 8 o Mei ka tūkino katoatia ngā māra kai. Nō taua wā tonu nei ka tae atu hoki te ope a Kānara J. H. H. St John ki Ruatāhuna ka rite ki te mea i tātaitia ai.

Kātahi ka ngarea a Te Pōkiha rātau ko ana toa o Ngāti Pikiao me ngā pirihimana mau pū, ki te kimi i a Te Kooti i te takiwā e taka waenga ana i Ruatāhuna me Waikaremoana. Tūponohia e rātau ngā toro a Te Kooti i Ōrona. Kātahi ka kōkiringia e Te Pōkiha me tana ope o Te Arawa ka hoki whakamuri ngā toro nei. Ka whawhai haere tonu i runga i te huarahi ā tae noa ki Waikaremoana; ka hikitia e Te Arawa tā rātau riri i konei kua kaha mai hoki te takurua, ā, kua pau haere hoki ā rātau matā. Whakaae tonu a Whitmore me hoki. Me i tohe kia haere tonu tērā e pau katoa rātau ki te ahi i a Te Kooti me tana ope haukoti. Ka whakatika a Te Kooti ki Taupō kātahi ka huri haere ki Rotorua i Pēpuere o 1870. Kua noho meiha a Te Pōkiha i taua wā, ā, ko ia tētehi o ngā kaiwawao i Rotorua. Ēngari, nō Maehe o 1870, ka whakawateangia ngā tūranga o ngā rangatira Māori o Te Arawa nā rātau nei ā rātau toa i arataki, ka whakanōhia he āpiha Pākehā hei kaiārahi. Ko te whānautanga mai tērā o te rōpū rārā, te ope rererangi o Te Arawa (Arawa Flying Column).

Ka tae a te Tiuka o Edinburgh ki Tauranga i Tīhema o 1870 ka tukuna ki a Te Pōkiha he hoari hei tohu mō ana manaakitanga i te kāwanatanga. I poka noa a Te Pōkiha rātau ko ngā rangatira o Te Arawa ki te pōwhiri i te Tiuka, e noho mai ana te tangata whenua, a Ngāi Te Rangi. Nō muri i te Tiuka ka hahanitia a Te Arawa; ka mutu kātahi ka taki whawhai.

Ka mutu te pakanga, ka noho a Te Pōkiha i Maketū, te tuatahi o ngā ariki-ihorei o Te Arawa ki te noho ki reira. Nō te tau 1866 pea, ka hangaia tana whare whakairo a Kawatapu-ā-rangi; nō ngā tau whakamutunga o te tekau tau mai i 1870, ka oti tana pātaka nui (kei te whare taonga i Ākarana (Auckland War Memorial Museum)). He mea arataki e Te Pōkiha tana iwi ki te hanga hao, ko tētehi kotahi maero te roa. Nāna a Ngāti Pikiao i taki i ngā mahi hanga rori ēngari he wā tonu kātahi anō ia ka whakaae ki ngā pou waea. Kore rawa ia i pai ki te hoko whenua ki te Pākehā. Nō te tau 1871, ka kōrero ia ki te whakaminenga i Kawatapu-ā-rangi e whakahē ana i ngā rūri a te Kōti Whenua Māori me ngā utu. Whakatakariri rawa atu ia i tana mōhiotanga kua tukuna ki a Ngāti Whakaue te whenua i whakaaro ai ia mō Ngāti Pikiao; i hua i a ia te whakaaro ki te noho ki runga i te whenua nei ki te mahi māra kai. Kāti, ka manawapā ia ki te ture. Nō te tau 1874, ka haere ia ki Pōneke (Wellington) ki te manaaki i ngā petihana a Te Arawa e kīia rārā kia hokona ō rātau whenua ki te kāwanatanga anake; kāti ko ngā kaihoko a te kāwanatanga e hoko whenua ana i ngā tāngata kāore nei ō rātau take ki aua whenua.

I te tau 1878 tata tonu ka pakanga a Ngāti Pikiao rāua ko Ngāti Whakaue i runga i ngā whakahaere a te Kōti Whenua Māori. Ko ngā hunga tautohe ko Te Pōkiha rāua ko Pētera Te Pukuatua. Nā runga i ngā whakaratarata a Robert Graham i te marama o Hune, ka whakatūria te Komiti Nui o Rotorua hei kimi rongoā mō ngā whenua e raruraru ana, hei manaaki hoki i te ture. He kore nō Te Pōkiha e utu ana i ana tāke mō tana kurī i te tau 1892, ka whiua ia e te ture ka mauria ki te whare herehere mō ngā rā e toru. Tino pā pōuri katoa ia mō tēnei whakaitinga. Nō te tau i muri mai ka tautoko ia i te kaupapa kia whakatūria te Kotahitanga (te Pāremata Māori). Heoi, nā runga i tana tautohe ki a Ngāti Whakaue ka kore rātau ko tana iwi ko Ngāti Pikiao e tae atu ki te hui tuawhā a te Kotahitanga i Rotorua i te tau 1895.

I mau a Te Pōkiha ki te Hāhi Mihingare tae noa ki te tīmatanga o te tekau tau o 1880; nō taua wā nei ka uru atu ia ki te rōpū hāpai i te Kawenata Tawhito e ārahina ana e Himiona Te Orinui. He rōpū pai ake tēnei i te whakapono Tariao i whakatūria e te Kīngi tuarua, e Tāwhiao; e karangatia ana taua rōpū nei ko Ngā Karakia a Te Pōkiha, arā, ko te Hāhi a Te Pōkiha. Kāore a Te Pōkiha e kai waipiro ana; nō te tau 1887, i haere ia ki Mōtītī hei mihingare mō tana Hāhi.

E hia nei ngā wāhine a Te Pōkiha ēngari kāore i whiwhi uri. Nōna ka kaumātuatia kātahi ka moe i a Ngārangikakī, tamāhine a Rāwiri Manuariki. E hia nei ngā tau e pāngia ana e te māuiui ka mate i roto i ngā ringaringa o tana hoa i te 11 o Hūrae 1901 i tana kāinga i Maketū. E kōrerotia ana neke atu i te 70 ōna tau i te matenga. He tangihanga nui tonu tōna; nō te tāpuketanga ka ūhia ngā hōnore a Tūmatauenga ki runga i a ia. Nō te hahunga ka mauria ana kōiwi ki te urupā i Te Atuareretahi i Te Rotoiti.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Steven Oliver. 'Taranui, Te Pōkiha - Taranui, Te Pokiha', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t14/taranui-te-pokiha (accessed 8 December 2019)