Until 1900, bullock teams were the main form of bush transport. With 16 bullocks, this Northland team was unusually large. The animals are joined with wooden yokes and coupling chains. The drivers carry long whips, which often had lancewood handles and flax lashes. The whips were cracked as much to emphasise verbal commands as to inflict pain.
Te whakamahi i tēnei tūemi
Permission of the Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand, Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa, must be obtained before any re-use of this image.