The graph shows the number of Māori prisoners as a percentage of the total prison population. Throughout the 19th century Māori were a small percentage of total prisoners. The spike in numbers around 1880 is the result of imprisonments as a result of non-violent protest at Parihaka in Taranaki. In the 20th century the percentage of Maori prisoners increased steadily. From 1980 it was never below 45%.
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Source: Greg Newbold, The problem of prisons: corrections reform in New Zealand since 1840. Wellington: Dunmore, 2007, pp. 55–56.