This graph shows the contribution that net migration and natural increase have made to New Zealand's population from 1865 to 2005. Total growth figures are arrived at by adding net migration (people coming in minus people leaving) and natural increase (births minus deaths) together. Total growth trended upwards overall, despite decreases in some periods.
Natural increase took over from migration as the main factor in population growth from the 1870s. However, migration remained important. Significant net migration gains occurred throughout the 20th century and into the 21st. Net migration losses (when emigration exceeded immigration) also occurred. These periods are shown by the migration line dipping below the horizontal axis.
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Sources: T. Papps, ‘Growth and distribution of population.’ In Population of New Zealand / Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific 12, 2 vols. New York: United Nations, 1985, vol. 1, tables 7 & 15; Ian Pool, Te iwi Maori. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 1991; Statistics New Zealand