There are three ways of measuring gross domestic product (GDP) – by the value of production (GDP(P)), by the total incomes generated (GDP(I)), or by the value of spending on the goods and services produced (GDP(E)). When all foreign transactions are excluded, then in theory the three sums should be the same. However in practice GDP(P) and GDP(I) are derived from the same data source, but GDP(E) is derived from different sources so there are usually small variations between it and the other two sums.
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