This bracken spore profile is part of the pollen and spore record taken from a sediment core in Travis swamp, Christchurch. It shows a dramatic increase in bracken spores in the 13th century, a pattern that has been found throughout New Zealand. This coincided with an increase in charcoal and a pronounced decline in pollen from tall forest trees. These factors suggest that bracken was one of the first plants to colonise forest areas burnt off by early Māori settlers.
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Source: Landcare Research – Manaaki Whenua