Kōrero: Nireaha Tāmaki

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Nireaha Tamaki

1835–1837?–1911

Nō Rangitāne, nō Ngāti Kahungunu; he kaihautū

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1993.

I whānau a Nireaha Tāmaki i Te Pākawau i te parenga i te awa o Manawatū ki runga i waenga i ngā tau i 1835 ki 1837 pea. Ko tōna pāpā, ko Matiu Tāmaki, he uri rangatira nō Rangitāne me Hāmua. Ko Nireaha Matiu anō te īngoa o Nireaha. Ko tōna whaea, ko Maraea Te Hungatai, arā, ko Reikura, he wahine rangatira, he uri nō Rangitāne me Kahungunu. Ko Hāmua me Ngāti Mutuahi ngā tino hapū o Nireaha. He hono anō hoki ōna ki a Ngāti Kapakapa (Ngāti Pakapaka rānei), ki a Ngāti Te Wānanga, ki a Ngāti Matangiuru me Ngāti Māwhai hoki.

I a ia e tamariki ana ka whāngaia e Reihana Tākawa, ā, i huaina e tērā ko Te Mōrehu. I a ia e tupu ake ana ka aro mai tōna tipuna rangatira o Rangitāne a Te Hirawanu Kaimokopuna ki a ia. Arā a Te Hirawanu i Puehutai i te awa o Manawatū i runga rawa atu e noho ana, ā, nāna a Nireaha i ako ki te mana o ōna tīpuna. I te matenga o Te Hirawanu ka whakaaetia a Nireaha hei whakakapi mōna, arā, hei rangatira mō ōna tini hapū. Nā ngā kaumātua ia i tomo kia moe ki tētahi wahine rangatira nō Hāmua me Mua-ūpoko, ko Rihipeti te īngoa. Ko Matewai me Pirihira ā rāua tamariki. He wāhine atu anō, ā, he tokomaha hoki āna tamariki. Ko ngā kāinga i nohoia e ia ko Te Papa-i-ōia (Palmerston North), ko Tahoraiti (e tata ana ki Dannevirke), ko Whakaoriori (Masterton), ko Ngā-awapūrua (e tata ana ki Woodville), ko Te Hāwera (Hāmua).

I te tau 1871 ka tīmata a Nireaha Tāmaki i tana mahi tūturu hei kaitiaki i ngā whenua o ōna iwi, ahakoa he uaua i te tīmatanga nā te mea e taiohi tonu ana, ā, kāore anō kia tohua hei rangatira aporei. Ahakoa i whakaae ia ki te hoko i te whenua e mōhiotia rā ko Te Taperenui-o-Whātonga (Forty Mile Bush), arā, ko te pito ki Wairarapa o Tāmakinui-a-Rua (Seventy Mile Bush), i hiahia ia kia nui ngā wāhanga rāhui mō ōna hapū i Pāhiatua, i Ngā-awapūrua, i Te Hāwera, i Tūtaekara. I te tau 1873 ahakoa ko ia tētahi o ngā kaihoko i te poraka whenua e kīia ana ko Mangatainoka, ko Manawatū–Wairarapa Nama 3 rānei, i Te Taperenui-o-Whātonga, e 62,000 eka te nui, ka mau tonu i a ia he pānga ki ētahi o ngā wehewehenga me ngā whenua i rāhuitia. I te mutunga o āna mahi hoko whenua i ngā tau maha, e 5,000 eka pea i mau tonu i a ia.

I te tekau tau atu i 1870 ka tīmata i te kōti te tuatahi o ngā whawhai a Nireaha ki ngā rangatira o Rangitāne ki te hauāuru; he maha ngā wā i tautokona a ia e Huru Te Hiaro o Te Hāwera, te irāmutu a Te Hirawanu Kaimokopuna. I te tau 1872 ka whakakāhoretia te kerēme a Nireaha kia rēhitatia ia hei tangata whai pānga ki te poraka o Mangatainoka Nama 2A, arā, ki te poraka o Tūtaekara. I te tau 1875 ka tono anō ia kia rēhitatia ia hei kaikarāti mō taua poraka, me te kī kāore ia i whakaae ki te mahi tohatoha a Hoani Meihana Te Rangiotū i ngā wehewehenga o te poraka ki ngā hapū. Ka whakakāhoretia e te kōti tana tono. I muri mai ka tono anō ia i te taha ki a ia me te taha ki tōna rōpū mō tētahi wehewehenga motuhake ki te tonga o taua poraka, i te mea kei reira āna mahinga kai me ngā urupā o ōna tīpuna. I whakahē a Te Rangiotū rāua ko Te Peeti Te Aweawe, ā, ka whakakorea anō tana tono.

Ko te nui o taua poraka e 66,390 eka pea, ā, i muri i te whakawānga a te kōti ka hia hoko te Karauna. Pau ana te rā kotahi e tautohetia ana taua poraka e Te Rangiotū me Nireaha mō te taha ki a Ngāti Mutuahi; ko te tino rarunga o Te Rangiotū te mutunga, kātahi ka hikitia te hokonga. I Hune o te tau 1875 i tuhi a Nireaha ki a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), arā, ki te minita mō ngā take Māori ki te tono kia whakawākia anō tana kerēme. I Hūrae i tuhi anō ia me te whakawehi hoki kia mau pū rātou menā e kore tana tono e whakaaetia. I muri iho ka hui kotahi a Te Mākarini rāua ko Nireaha, ā, ko te āhua i tatū te take.

Ahakoa āna whawhai ki te pupuri i te whenua, i pai a Nireaha ki te noho a tauiwi. Ko te īngoa kārangaranga o tauiwi mōna ko Bulls-tail. Nā rāua ko Huru Te Hiaro i whakahaere te waka whakawhiti i te awa o Manawatū i te taha rāwhiti o te kūititanga. I Ākuhata o te tau 1877 nā rāua tahi ko te Karauna i whakaae kia hangā he piriti hei whakawhiti i te awa, ā, mō āna mahi nui ka utua ia ki ngā moni tāpiri e £25 i te tau. I te tau 1885 nā Gottfried Lindauer a ia i peita; ko te kākahu he korowai hukahuka, he mere kei te ringa, he rau huia kei ngā makawe.

Ko ngā whawhai a Nireaha i ngā tau tīmatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1880 he whawhai ki te kāwanatanga. I muri i te rāhuitanga o te whenua i Mangatainoka e te kāwanatanga hei hanga rerewē i Hānuere 1884, ka tuhia e Nireaha te tono kia whakakorea taua rāhui, ā, kia utua hoki ia ki ngā moni kamupeneheihana mō āna mahi whakapai whenua. Ko tōna hiahia me whakatū te kāwanatanga kia toru ngā teihana i te takiwā o Te Taperenui-o-Whātonga, ā, kia whakaīngoatia ko Hāwera, ko Pāhiatua, ko Ngā-awa-purua.

Ka pau te kaha o ngā kaihoko whenua a te kāwanatanga ki te hoko i ngā hea o tēnā, o tēnā, o ngā kaitango karāti e whai pānga ana ki ngā poraka whenua o Mangatainoka, hei aha noa atu ngā hiahia o ngā rangatira kia puritia hei whenua mō te iwi. Tae noa ki Hānuere 1884 kua hokona kētia mai e te kāwanatanga e 41,430 eka. I tohe ngā tino rangatira, ko Nireaha tētahi, kia tino nui atu ngā whenua me rāhui, kia rima ki te ono paihēneti o te katoa, kia 3,000 atu ki te 4,000 eka rānei.

I te hokinga mai o Hōri Rōpiha i Ingarangi i haere ia kia kite i a Nireaha i Hānuere o te tau 1885. Kua tino tatū i roto i a ia me whakakīkī ngā Māori o Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay) me Te Wairarapa kia mutu te hoko whenua, ā, kia mutu te huri ki te Kōti Whenua Māori. Kia hinga ai te mana o Rōpiha, ka whakamātau te kanohi a te kāwanatanga, a Meketānara (Thomas McDonnell), ki te whakarahi ake i te utu mō te eka hei tāwai i a Nireaha, i ngā kaihoko kore hoko i te poraka o Mangatainoka.

I Āperira o te tau 1885, nā te mea i hiahia te kāwanatanga ki te hoko i tētahi wāhanga o tōna hea o te poraka kāhore e pīrangitia ana mō te rerewē, ka haere te tono kia whakawākia tērā whenua i te Kōti Whenua Māori. I te unuhanga o Nireaha i te kōti ka meinga kia hiki te kēhi ki Ōtaki mō ngā rā mutunga o Mei. I Mei o te tau 1887 e whai pānga tonu ana a Nireaha ki Tūtaekara, ā, ka noho hei take whakararuraru i a Waata Tohu me ērā atu o ngā kaihoko whenua. I Maehe 1888, nā tana amuamu kei te hē ngā mapi a te kairūri o Te Hāwera, i tono ai ia ki te minita mō ngā take Māori, ki a Edwin Mitchelson, kia whakawākia anō te poraka. Kua whakaaetia e te Kōti Whenua te rāina rūri i a ia i tētahi tangihanga, ā, kua tata riro pea i te Karauna āna mahinga kai katoa, me āna mahi whakapai whenua.

I te tau 1890 i taea e Nireaha te tango te pānuitanga kia riro mā te Karauna anake e hoko mai ōna whenua, ka āhei ai ia ki te rīhi. Kāhore ia i tino toa nā te mea i tono te Karauna mā ngā kaiwhiwhi whenua anō e utu te rūringa. I kī atu a Nireaha ko ngā rūringa, ko ngā huihuinga a te kōti, ko ngā hokohokonga hoki nā te Kāwanatanga anō i whakahau. I tatū i ngā āpiha a te Karauna e tika ana mā ngā tāngata pupuri whenua e utu ngā nama o ngā whenua e puritia ana e rātou. I whakaaro rātou kāhore tētahi kaihoko Pākehā i pai ki te utu i te rūringa, nā reira kāore rātou i tino whakapono e tino hiahia ana a Nireaha ki te pupuri i ōna whenua.

Ko te tau 1893 te taumata o ngā pakanga i waenga i a Nireaha me te Karauna mō ngā wehewehenga whenua i Mangatainoka. Nā te mea kāhore he rūringa i te wā i tukua ai ngā karāti ka whakakorea ngā tiwhikete taitara. Nō te tau 1894 i rangona ai e te Kōti Pīra te kēhi ā-ture a Nireaha Tāmaki v. Baker, he kēhi tēnei e whakahuahuatia tonutia ana. E 5,184 eka te rahi o te whenua i kerēmetia e Nireaha, arā, ko te wāhanga tēnei o te poraka i hoatu māna me ētahi atu i Hepetema o te tau 1871. Ēngari mehemea kāhore he painga o te taitara, nā te mea kāore anō te whenua kia whakataua e te Kōti, kāti ka noho taua whenua hei whenua papatipu.

I whakatau te Kōti menā he taitara tō Nireaha, he taitara nō runga i ngā tikanga Māori. I whakataua i te tau 1877 i te kēhi ā-ture a Wī Parata v. The bishop of Wellington & the attorney-general, ko ngā mahi hoko whenua papatipu he mahi nā te kāwanatanga, ā, kāhore e taea te whakarere kē ahakoa ko tēhea te kōti, tae atu ki te Kōti Pīra. Āpiti atu, kāhore kau he ture Māori i huaina 'ko te Tikanga Tawhito me ōna Whakahaere a te Iwi Māori' ahakoa kei te mau tonu ēnei kupu i roto i te Ture mō ngā Tikanga Māori (Native Rights Act) o 1865. Ka whakataua mā Nireaha e utu ngā moni whakahaere i te Kōti.

I pānuitia ngā whakaaro mō te rarunga o Nireaha i roto i te nūpepa a te Kotahitanga, i Huia Tangata Kotahi. I meinga kāhore kau te Kōti Pīra i whakaae ki te whakatau i tana kēhi nā te mea menā i pērātia tērā pea ka patapataia ētahi atu hokonga a te Karauna i runga anō i taua kaupapa. I āta titiro te iwi Māori ki a Nireaha i muri i tana whakatau ki te tono ki te Kaunihera Motuhake a Te Kuini (Privy Council). I Mei 1900 ka whakawākia, ā, i Mei 1901 ka pānuitia te whakatau. I hoki whakamuri te whakarite i runga i te whiriwhiringa, kei te Kōti Pīra tonu te mana whakamutunga menā kua tukua te whenua kūraruraru ki te Karauna, me kua kore rānei. Ka whakataua mā te tangata e whakapaetia ana, arā, mā te kairūri tumuaki, mā John Holland Baker e utu ngā moni whakahaere i te kōti o te tau 1894.

Ā kō ake nei riro ai nā te toanga o Nireaha, i whakatū ētahi kaupapa i pā ki ngā whakawānga o muri mai: kia maumahara ngā kōti ki ngā tikanga Māori ahakoa kāhore ōna mana kia whakaaetia rawatia e te ture; kāhore he whakahēnga a te tikanga Māori i tā te ture e kī ana, arā, kei raro i te Karauna te utu herekore (fee simple) o ngā whenua katoa o Niu Tīreni; ko te mea nui rawa atu kia kitea ngā tikanga whenua Māori, ā, kia tangotangohia ēnei tikanga i roto i ngā whakatau a te Kōti. Ko te whakautu a te kāwanatanga i te whakatau a te Kaunihera Motuhake a Te Kuini, ko tētahi ture i whakatūria hei whakaiti i te mana o te Māori ki te āta tirotiro i ngā tikanga hoko whenua a te Karauna i roto i ngā kōti. Heoi anō kua tuhia noatia ngā kaupapa o tēnei whakatau, ā, nō reira he tino whakatau tēnei mō ake tonu.

Nō tōna rongonui i āna take whenua ka noho ko Nireaha tonu tētahi o ngā kaingārahu Māori. I te tīmatanga o te Kotahitanga he iti te wāhanga ki a ia, ēngari, he nui atu i muri mai, pērā i te huinga a te Pāremata i Pāpāwai me ngā huinga a te kaunihera Māori. I te tau 1906 he kaitohutohu ia mā te Kaunihera o Rongokako. I te tīmatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1900 ka hangaia e ia te whare hui ko Te Poari i Hāmua. I te tau 1901 ko ia te kaihautū o te kapa haka o Ngāti Kahungunu i te pōwhiri ki te Tiuka o Cornwall, o York me tōna hoa rangatira ki Rotorua. I taua tau anō i haere rāua ko Tamahau Mahupuku ki Poihākena (Sydney) ki ngā mahi whakangahau ki te whakanui i te tōpūtanga o Ahitereiria.

Nā Nireaha tonu i mau ai te īngoa o Hāmua ki te poutāpeta i Te Hāwera, huritia tonutia atu anō hoki te īngoa o te tāone, noho tonu atu hei whakamaharatanga ki tōna tino hapū. I te tau 1886 ka tū te tāone o Nireaha i runga i te whenua i hokona atu e ia. I whakaīngoatia te tāone nei ki a ia. I te tau 1907 ka riro ko ia hei mema mō te Komiti o Tūpai o te Komiti o Tānenui-a-Rangi. Riro ana mā aua komiti e kohikohi, e whakatikatika ngā whakapapa me ngā kōrero tuku iho o Rangitāne, o Ngāti Kahungunu.

I a ia e taitama ana he Mihinare a Nireaha, ēngari ka huri hei Katorika i te tekau tau mai i 1890. I hoatu whenua ia mō te hōro i Hāmua i te tau 1896, ā, i muri atu, he whenua anō mō te whare karakia. I mate ia i Hāmua i te 3 o Hūrae i te tau 1911. I te rā o tōna nehunga ka amohia mai ia i tōna whare, i Te Mihi-ki-a-te-Kuini ki te urupā. I te pīhopa Katorika o Pōneke (Wellington) ngā karakia, i a Hekiera Te Raro te minita Mihinare te kauwhau. E 3,000, Māori, Pākehā i te nehunga. I whakatūria he kōwhatu whakamaharatanga ki a ia e āna tamāhine, e Meri Ngāwhiro rāua ko Pirihira Tātere.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Nireaha Tāmaki - Nireaha Tamaki', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2n16/nireaha-tamaki (accessed 23 October 2019)