Kōrero: Kaikōura Whakatau

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Kaikoura Whakatau

?–1868

Nō Ngāi Tahu; he kaiārahi

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Harry C. Evison,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1993.

Ko Kaikōura Whakatau te kaingārahu o Ngāi Tahu i te takiwā o Kaikōura puta noa i ngā 25 tau o te tīmatanga o te taetae mai o te Pākehā ki te patu tohorā, me te tīmatanga o te mahi ahu whenua i te tekau tau atu i 1840. Kāore i te mōhiotia tōna rā whānau me te wāhi i paratī ai tōna wai. He uri ngātahi ōna mātua a Tāhere (Te Haere rānei) rāua ko Āniwaniwa, nā te amorangi o Ngāi Tahu rā, nā Tūrākautahi. Nā tēnei kāwai ōna i mana ai ia ki te noho tahi me ērā o ngā amorangi mātāpuputu o Ngāi Tahu, i ā rātou rūnanga.

I te ngaro kē a Kaikōura Whakatau i te hoepapatanga a Te Rauparaha i tōna pā o Mikonui i te taitonga o Kaikōura. Ko te tōmuatanga tonu o 1830 te wā. I awhea te iwi kāinga i Ōtama-ā-kura kātahi ka patupatua, ka mau hereheretia rānei. I hoki ake a Whakatau ki te nehu i ngā wheua o ngā patunga. Kua noho nei ko ia te ihorei mōrehu matua, ka meinga e ia hei mahi māna te whakapakari anō i tōna iwi i patua kinotia nei, ā, i momoho i a ia tēnei.

Nā Whakatau i whakamarumaru ngā umanga a Ngāi Tahu i te takiwā ki Kaikōura. Nāna i whakahaere ngā tukunga e mana ai ngā kaipatu tohorā Pākehā ki te mahi ki tahaki. Ā, i ātetehia kahangia e ia te noho a te hunga kaiwhakahārau i ngā whenua e whakaarohia ana e Ngāi Tahu he hira ki a rātou, heoti kīhai he āinga. Koia tēnei te take i whakapeka a ia ki te whakarato i ētahi kaiārahi ki uta mō W. J. W. Hamilton i 1849 me Frederick Weld i 1850, i te haerenga o ēnei tokorua ki te hōpara i te whenua hei pāmu hipi. I whakawhiwhia e ngā whanaunga o Whakatau ki a ia he wāhi o te moni i utua e te kōmihana, e Te Tipa (W. B. D. Mantell) mō te hokonga o Ngā Pākihi-whakatekateka-a-Waitaha (Canterbury) i 1849. I te mea ehara ia i te kaiwhaipānga aporei o taua wāhi kāore i hainatia e ia te tīti hoko.

Ka piki haere te tipu o te mahi hoko whenua, ka noho hei takenga mō te whakatakariri. I te Oketopa o 1852 ka toro atu a Whakatau i a Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey) i Pōneke (Wellington), ki te whakakoia anō i te mana whenua o Ngāi Tahu ki te takutai o Kaikōura. Kāore i ārikarika te mautohe a Ngāi Tahu o Waitaha ki te noho a te Pākehā i ngā whenua whaka-te-raki o Kaiapoi kāore anō kia hokona. Ka mataku ngā mana whakahaere o Waitaha he āinga te mutunga. Hei tā Te Keepa (Henry Tacy Kemp), te hēkeretari mō ngā take Māori ki New Munster, nā te pūmau o te whanonga pai o Whakatau ki ngā Pākehā i tono ai ia kia whakaātehatia tērā, ā, ka utua ki a ia te moni e £60. Ki tō Te Keepa nei whakaaro, kua tangohia nei e tērā te moni, e tuku ana a Whakatau i āna kerēme ki te takiwā ki Kaikōura. Heoti, i pōhēhē kē a Whakatau koia tēnei ko te utu mō te tūranga o te teihana patu tohorā a Alexander Fyffe i Waiopuka, i te toro whenua o Kaikōura. I te putanga ake o te kairūri a te kāwanatanga ki te rūri whānui i te takutai o Kaikōura, ka panaia e Whakatau me tōna iwi.

I mua i te hokonga o te poraka o Waitaha ki te Raki e Hamilton mā te Karauna, ka tū te rūnanga o ngā kanohi ā-iwi o Ngāi Tahu ki Te Whakaraupō (Lyttelton) i Tīhema o 1856. E mōhiotia ana ko Kaikōura Whakatau te tino kaikōrero nāna i tautuhi ngā kerēme a Ngāi Tahu ki ngā whaitua e tautohetohetia ana. He take raupatu te kerēme a Ngāti Toa ki aua whenua taupatupatu, ā, ka tāpiritia atu ki tā rātou hokonga o te poraka o Wairau ki a Kerei i te tau 1847. Nā Whakatau anō i whakamōhio ki te mana whenua o Poutini Ngāi Tahu ki Te Tai Poutini, he tikanga kāore i tautokona e te kāwanatanga i taua wā. Arā a ia i te hokonga o Waitaha ki te Raki i te Pēpuere o 1857. He pānga ōna ēngari kīhai ōna mana ahikāroa. Ko ia tētahi o te hokotahi nāna i haina te tīti hoko. O te £200 o te utunga tuatahi, £10 i riro i a ia.

Ko te hua o te rīpoata a Hamilton ki a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), te Kōmihana Tumuaki Hoko Whenua, ko te hoko tuarua mai a Tiemi Make (James Mackay) i te poraka taupatupatu o Kaikōura i a Ngāi Tahu ki Kaikōura i 1859, me te hokonga o te poraka o Arahura i a Poutini Ngāi Tahu i 1860. I te taenga atu o Make ki Kaikōura ki te tīmata i ngā whakaritenga i Pēpuere o 1859, kua mōhio kē a Whakatau kua hokona kētia, kua rīhi kētia rānei e ngā mana whakahaere o te porowini o Whakatū (Nelson) he wāhi nui tonu o te poraka 2½ miriona eka o Kaikōura ki ngā tāngata whai Pākehā. E whia mano pāuna kē nei te moni i riro mai. Nā reira a Whakatau i tono ai kia £5,000 mō taua poraka, ā, kia mau tonu te 100,000 eka i waenganui i ngā awa o Kahutara me Tūtae-putuputu (Conway) kia āhei ai tōna iwi ki te mahi ahu whenua. Ēngari i raro kē a Make i ngā whakahau a Te Mākarini; arā, mehemea ka tareka, kia kaua e neke atu i te £150 te moni e utua. Me te whakatuma anō ki te hoko kē mai i aua whenua i a Ngāti Toa me Te Āti Awa menā kīhai a Ngāi Tahu e whakaae ki āna whakaritenga. He whakatohetohe te hainatanga a Ngāi Tahu i te whakaaetanga ā-pukapuka a Make. E £300 te moni i riro mai, ā, tāpiri atu hoki ki te whenua tāpui i te ākau e 5,566 eka te rahi. Ahakoa te pai o taua wāhi mō te kohi hua karaka me te kai mātaitai, he wāhi korekiko, he wāhi taitāhae kē te whakaatu mai a Make me te kī anō kōhoka mārika rawa atu te oranga e puta ana ki te iwi kāinga.

I whakamiramiratia, i kaingākautia whānuitia a Kaikōura Whakatau i waenga ngātahi i te Māori me te Pākehā. Nā runga i tōna pūkenga ki ngā tikanga ā-iwi me ngā kōrero tuku iho i tū teitei ai tōna mana i waenga i te kāhui ariki o Ngāi Tahu. He ngākau tika, he pou whakawhirinaki tā te kāwanatanga nei whakaaturanga mō tōna rongo. He pēnei te whakaatu mai a Weld i te āhua o Whakatau i te tau 1850, arā, he kiritea, he kamo kahurangi, ā, ahakoa te nui o te tinana he tino kōmārohi rawa atu te hanga. O ngā Māori katoa o mua atu i tūtakina e ia, kāore i rite ki a Whakatau mō te māhorahora me te purotu o te kanohi, te ngahau anō hoki o te mihi. Ahakoa i eke tōna mōhiotanga ki te Kawenata Tawhito ki te taumata e tareka ai e ia te taupetupetu, ko te āhua nei kāre ia i huri ki te whakapono Karaitiana. I whakanonoi tonu ia i tōna mana tangata ki āna wāhine punarua, ki a Matairena rāua ko Kararaina. Ka puta i a Kararaina ko Hariata, he tamāhine. Ko te whakaaro ko 1868 te tau i hemo ai a Kaikōura Whakatau. I taka i tana hōiho i tētahi wāhi whakamataku o ngā paripari o Haumuri, ā, i tāpuketia ki Waihiria e pātata ana ki Mikonui. Ko te tohu ko 'Kaikōura' kei runga i te Tiriti o Waitangi i hainatia i te 10 o Hune 1840 ki Ruapuke. E ai ki te kōrero a ngā uri o Kaikōura Whakatau, ko ia tonu te kaihaina.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Harry C. Evison. 'Kaikōura Whakatau - Kaikoura Whakatau', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2k4/kaikoura-whakatau (accessed 23 January 2020)