Kōrero: Tapu, Hirawanu

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Tapu, Hirawanu

?–1900

Nō ngā Moriori; he kaingārahu

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Michael King,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

I whānau a Hirawanu Tapu i te tau 1824 i Te Awapātiki i te rāwhiti o Rēkohu, arā, o Wharekauri (Chatham Islands). He uri nō te iwi o Ōwenga. Ko Maitarawai, ko Taputehara Maitara ētahi o ōna īngoa karanga. Ko Rūnanga, ko Hirimaru rānei te īngoa o tōna whaea. Kei te ngaro te īngoa o tōna pāpā. Tērā atu tētahi ōna e mōhiotia ana, ko Wī Tīpene Matahuri te īngoa. Ko wai ka hua mena he taina he tuakana rānei, heoti he pāpā kē tōna.

He iti nei ngā kōrero mō te wā i a ia e tamariki ana. E noho tonu ana ia i Te Awapātiki i te whakaekenga o Rēkohu e Ngāti Tama me Ngāti Mutunga i Noema me Tīhema o 1835. I whakamōkaitia ia i muri iho e Ngāti Tama, ka haria haeretia e rātou ki Waitahi, ki Ngātikitiki, oti rawa atu ki Kaingaroa hei pononga mō tētahi wā nei mā te rangatira rā, mā Wiremu Kīngi Meremere.

Kei ngā tuhituhi o Hānuere o 1859 a Archibald Shand, te Kaiwhakawā Takiwā mō Rēkohu, te kī i taumautia a Hirawanu Tapu ki a Rohana (ko tētahi o ōna īngoa ko Tini Waihe) he Moriori anō. Arā a Rohana i ngā moutere Auckland e noho pononga ana mā Ngāti Mutunga, atu i 1842 ki 1856. I whakamātau a Matioro, te rangatira o Rohana, kia kaua a Hirawanu Tapu e moe i te wahine nei, ā, kāwhakina ana e ia a Rohana ki Waitangi i Rēkohu. Otirā, taka rawa atu ki 1861, e noho tahi ana a Hirawanu rāua ko Rohana.

I te matenga o Meremere i te tau 1860, ka puta a Hirawanu Tapu i tōna taurekarekatanga. Ko tōna hokinga atu tēnā ki tōna iwi i Ōwenga i te tonga ngawī o Rēkohu. I reira ka meinga a ia hei ahuahunga mā Tōrea Takerehe, ā, taihoa ake, hei whakakapi mōna. Nā Tōrea Takerehe i whakakīkī te Moriori kia kaua e ātetehia ngā Māori i tomo atu i te tau 1835 me 1836.

I tēnei wā kua tohunga a Tapu ki te tuhituhi, ki te kōrero Māori, ā, he āhua matatau hoki ki te reo Moriori. I tua atu, ahakoa kāore ia i tino matatau ki te reo Pākehā, he mōhio tonu tōna. Ka huia katoatia ēnei tohu, ā, me tana kakama ki te wāriu taonga, ka noho ko ia te kaiwhakahaere mō ngā mahi whakawhitiwhiti taonga. I mahia tēnei mahi i waenga i ngā kaipuke e toro mai ana, me te iwi kāinga o Ōwenga. Ko te nuinga o aua kaipuke he whai tohorā te mahi. Na, i ngā whakariterite, ka rārangitia e ia ngā kete rīwai, ā, ko tā ngā kaipatu tohorā he tātai i a rātou rīnene kia pērā anō te roa, hei utu.

I te tau 1862 ka tū te hui tuarua nui a te Moriori ki Te Awapātiki. He tuhituhi i ō rātou kōrero tipuna, kōrero whakapapa me tā rātou whakahē i te raupatutanga o Rēkohu e ngā Māori. Ko Tapu te kaituhituhi mō taua hui me ngā hui o muri iho. Mai i taua wā, ahakoa ehara a Tapu i te uri rangatira, ā, kāore anō kia riro i a ia te karangatanga kaumātua, ki te katoa o Rēkohu ko ia tonu te kaingārahu me te māngai mō te Moriori. Ko ngā pānui katoa a te kāwana, a te kāwanatanga me ō rātou whakakapi, tukuna mai ai māna hei whakatutuki hei whakautu rānei. Ko ngā manuhiri pērā i a Stephenson Percy Smith rāua ko Edward Tregear rā, e pīrangi ana ki ngā kōrero tipuna me ngā tikanga a te Moriori, haere katoa ai ki a Hirawanu Tapu.

Nā ōna parapara ki te tuhituhi, ki te kōrero, ki te tatau, ā, he tangata pono hoki, taka rawa ake ki te pokapūtanga o te tekau tau mai i 1860, kua whakatūria a ia e William Thomas, te kaiwhakawā takiwā, hei āpiha tango tāke i ngā kaipuke e ū ake ana ki Ōwenga. Āpiti atu, ko te tuhituhi i aua mahi tāke i te wāpu, ā, ko te kati i ngā utanga mau tāhae mai. Ahakoa i kokorahotia taua tūranga e te hunga iwi kāinga, Pākehā, Māori, tae atu hoki ki te whakahē a Apitia Punga, te rangatira o Ngāti Mutunga, ka riro tonu i a Tapu.

Nō te tau 1868, ka neke ētahi o ngā Moriori o Ōwenga ki Manukau, e rua māero ki te tonga, ki runga whenua i te takutai moana e 2,000 eka te rahi. Tata kapi katoa ana taua whenua nei i te ngahere. Ko Tapu rātou ko Tōrea me Rohana i taua tira, ā, ko te kaioha o taua whenua ko Apitia Punga. Nō te tau 1870, ka whakapūmautia e te Kōti Whenua Māori te tū a te whenua i rāhuitia nei e Apitia mō Tapu mā.

I ngā nohoanga a te Kōti, ko Tapu tonu te kaiwhakaatu mātua mō ngā kokoraho a te Moriori. Ko te mate kē e kūare ana ia ki te ture, kīhai anō hoki ia kia whāwhā atu, kia ako rānei i ōna tikanga, ā, ki te whakatakoto kaupapa hoki hei āki i ana take. I whakawhirinaki kē ia ki te pono o te ariā o ngā ture o Peretānia (Great Britain), he ariā whakahirahira e ai ki te kōrero a tētahi kāpene kaipuke ki a ia. Ēngari anō ngā kaiwhakaatu Māori i Waitangi i taua wā anō kua waia kē rātou, i whai wāhi hoki ki ngā nohonga a te Kōti i Taranaki. Ahakoa he ōrite te tatau o te Māori ki tō te Moriori (me kī 100 pea te nui o tētahi i tētahi) i te tau 1870, ko te tukunga iho ka riro 146,289 eka o Rēkohu i te Māori, arā, 97.3 paiheneti o te whenua; ko te kongakonga i riro i te Moriori e 4,100 eka, arā, 2.7 paiheneti noa iho. I ngaro katoa ō rātou take ahikā ki ō rātou wāhi mahi kai nō onamata mai, pērā i a Rangiauria (Pitt Island) me ērā atu moutere o waho. I riro kē i te tikanga Māori ngā whakataunga a te kaiwhakawā, kīhai ki ngā tikanga a te Moriori. Ko te mutunga iho ka whakamanahia te take raupatu a Te Āti Awa.

Ko te tangata nei, ko Alexander Shand, te tama a te kaiwhakawā takiwā tuatahi o Rēkohu, i raihanatia hei kaiwhakamāori. Na, nō te tau 1868 i tīmata ai a Tapu ki te āwhina i a ia ki te kohikohi i ngā mahi a ngā tīpuna, i ngā kōrero tipuna, i ngā mōteatea me ngā kupu a te Moriori. Ko te wāhanga o ēnei mahi a rāua i a Tapu, ko te uiui i ngā pū kōrero o te Moriori i a Tōrea rātou ko Minarapa Tamahīwaka, ko Maikoua Mōhewa, ko Kirapu Rangikei, ko Pūmipi Te Rangaranga, ko Hōri Ngā Māia, ko Apimereke me Heremaia Tau. I tuhia ngā kōrero ki te reo Māori, ko ngā mōteatea ki te reo Moriori. Ka tiro ngātahitia e rāua ko Shand ngā kohikohinga nei. Ka patapatai tērā mō ngā kupu Pākehā kāore anō kia kitea e rāua he kupu Moriori, me te tikanga hoki o ētahi o ngā kupu. Ki te kore e taea e ia te whakautu, tika atu ia ki ana kaikōrero, ka patapatai anō. Taro ake ka tāia aua kohikohinga ki te Journal of the Polynesian Society i te tekau tau mai i 1890. I te tau 1911, ka tāia anō, ka puta ko The Moriori people of the Chatham Islands: their history and traditions. Ko Tapu anake te kaiwhakaatu i ngā kupu Moriori ki a Samuel Deighton, te kaiwhakawā takiwā, mō tana pukapuka kupu, ā, nō te tau 1887, ka kohaina e Deighton ki te hēkeretari tuarua mō ngā take Māori. Ahakoa te paku o tana mōhio ki te kōrero Moriori me tana kaingākau ki te uiui i ētahi pū kōrero, ka mahue ētahi, nāna te 90 paiheneti nuku atu o ngā kōrero mō te reo me ngā tikanga Moriori kei te mau tonu i nāianei.

He tino tōtika rawa atu ana mahi mā Shand rāua ko Deighton, ēngari i a ia anō ētahi mahi whakatoi ki ngā tauira tauhou e peka atu ana ki a ia. I te tau 1892, ka āta kōrero atu ia ki a Henry Forbes mō te pouwa. Hei tāna he manu inā kē te nui, he moa te waihanga, i Rēkohu e taka ana i neherā. I kite ia i ngā kōiwi e kounu ake ana i te pūroto o Te Whanga. Tērā anō tētahi kōrero, nāna te kī ki a Abner Clough, arā, he uri ngā Moriori nō ngā Pōtukīhi patu kekeno me ā rātou wāhine Māori e mau tūtūā ana i pae ki Rēkohu e 300 tau i mua atu. Kāore he kupu i ngā tuhituhi, i ngā reta rānei a Shand e whakaatu mai ana, i kī a Tapu he pono aua kōrero.

Kei ngā tuhituhi a Alexander Shand atu i te tekau tau mai i 1890 puta noa, i te heke haere o te hauora o Tapu i te mate kohi me te rewharewha. Taka rawa ake ki Mei o 1900 ka mate a Tapu ki Manukau. Ko te whakaaro e 76 ōna tau ina hinga nei. I ana tau whakamutunga e noho kōwhetewhete ana rātou ko ana hoa Moriori noho tata mō ō rātou paenga whenua. Ahakoa rā, i noho tonu ia hei kaingārahu, hei tangata rongonui hoki ā mate noa. I tae atu te kāwana tuatahi ki te haere ki te toro i Rēkohu, a Rore Glasgow, i te tau 1895. I tohungia e tērā he wā motuhake hei toro atu i a Tapu i Manukau. I ngā wiki i mua tata atu i tōna matenga, he rite tonu tana puta ake hei kaiwhakaatu mō ngā kerēme i te aroaro o te Kōti Whenua Māori, he wā mō ngā Māori, he wā anō mō ngā Moriori. I whānau mai tēnei tū āhua nō te mea kua matemate katoa ngā Māori o tōna whakatipuranga, ā, kīhai i rite te mōhio o ngā kaiwhakaatu Māori o taua wā, ki tōna. I tēnei wā e 12 noa iho ngā Moriori tūturu e ora tonu ana. Kāore he Moriori e tatari ake ana hei whakakapi mōna, e whiwhi pūmanawa ana rānei mō te tūranga o Tapu. Me kī pēnei te kī, arā, i ngaro te ao Moriori tūturu i te matenga o Tapu, ehara i tō Tommy Solomon matenga e 33 tau i muri mai.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Michael King. 'Tapu, Hirawanu', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t12/tapu-hirawanu (accessed 10 December 2019)