Kōrero: Tuaia, Pene Taka

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Tuaia, Pene Taka

?–1889

Nō Ngāi Te Rangi; he toa, he tohunga ki te hanga pā, he kaitohe

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Alister Matheson,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

Ko Pene Taka Tuaia he kaihautū nō Ngāti Rangi hapū o Ngāi Te Rangi o Tauranga mai i te tau 1850 tae noa ki tōna matenga i te tau 1889. I te wā i tūtaki ai rāua ko Rūtene H. G. Robley o te tira hōia e kīia nei ko te 68th (Durham Light Infantry) Regiment of Foot i te tau 1864, ka whakaaro te Pākehā rā neke atu i te 50 ngā tau o Pene Taka. I uru atu a ia ki ngā pakanga katoa o ngā 30 tau o mua atu, arā, ki te urutomo a Ngā Puhi i te tekau tau mai i 1830, ā, ki a Te Arawa mai i 1835 atu ki 1845.

Ko Pene Taka te tohunga nāna i hanga ngā rua me ngā maioro o te pā o Ngāi Te Rangi i Pukehinahina; ko 'The Gate Pā' ki te Pākehā. Ko tēnei te pā rongonui i huakina e ngā hōia o Peretānia (Great Britain) i te tau 1864. Kātahi rātou ka taiaritia. Ko te kōrero i akona a Pene Taka hei tohunga pūkenga ki te hanga pā awakeri whawhai pū i a ia i ngā whawhai i Te Tai Tokerau i ngā tau 1845 ki 1846. Ki te kōrero a Robley, i pakanga rawa a Pene Taka ki a Hōne Heke, ēngari nō muri iho ka whakahoa atu a Pene Taka ki a ia. I ngā tau mai i 1856 ki 1859 e noho raruraru ana ōna whenua o Ōhuki i Tauranga. Ka hangaia e ngā kaiātete ō rātou pā maioro. Ko Rāwiri Puhirake, ko Rāwiri Tuaia ki ētahi, tētahi o ngā hoa tauwhāinga, hei whanaunga ki a Pene Taka. Kāore e kore he uaratanga mōna i roto i ngā mōhiotanga hanga pā o Pene Taka.

Ko Pene Taka tētahi o ngā rangatira o Tauranga nāna i tautoko te Kīngitanga i a rātou e pakanga ana ki te kāwanatanga i te tau 1863. Nā te minita rā, nā Parāone (A. N. Brown) i whakatūpato atu, ka murua ō rātou whenua e te kāwanatanga mehemea ka whai wāhi rātou ki taua riri. Nō te tononga a te kāwanatanga he hōia ki Tauranga i te tau 1864, tere tonu te hoki o ngā toa o Ngāi Te Rangi ki te wawao i ō rātou whenua. Ka hangaia e rātou ō rātou pā kia tino pakari ngā maioro. Ko te āhua nei ko Pene te tohunga nāna i tātai aua pā tae atu hoki ki tōna pā tonu i a Pōterīwhi. He tūranga teitei tō tēnei pā i runga tonu ake i te taha rāwhiti e tata ana ki te pūwaha o te awa o Wairoa. I reira ka huihui a Ngāi Te Rangi; kātahi ka whakatauria e rātou ētahi ture hei whakahaere i te whanonga o ngā hoa tauwhāinga, mō te wā ka tū te riri i waenga i a rāua. Nō te 28 o Maehe ka tukuna atu he tauira ki a Rūtene Kānara H. H. Greer, te rangatira o te ope Pākehā me te tono anō kia haere atu ki te huaki i a rātou. Kīhai a Greer i aro atu ki te wero rā, nō reira ka neke atu a Rāwiri Puhirake me Ngāi Te Rangi ki te hanga pā i tētahi wāhi tū pakari i te hiwi o Pukehinahina, kia tata atu ai rātou ki te hōpuni o ngā ope hōia a te kāwanatanga. Nō muri iho ka tapaina taua pā ko 'The Gate Pā' nō te mea i hangaia ki te taha tonu o te kēti o te ara ki te mīhana o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare (Church Missionary Society).

He tino mūrere te hanganga a Pene Taka taua pā rā, otirā, te pakari o ngā maioro, he huhua ngā rua hei hunanga mō te hunga mau pū. Nō te 29 o Āperira 1864, ka taiparatia rātou mō te katoa o taua rā e ngā pū nunui a ngā hōia o Peretānia, ēngari, he ruarua nei o ngā kaiwawao i whara nō te mea i roto kē rātou i ngā rua e whakamarumaru ana. Nō te taiaputanga a ngā hōia ka puhipuhitia mai e Ngāi Te Rangi i ō rātou rua whakarurunga, ka hinga te maha. Ko te putanga tērā o te oho mauri ki ngā hōia, ā, i roto i tō rātou pōkaikahatanga, ka huri, ka oma. Nā tōna punenga ki te waihanga pā mō tēnei tūmomo pakanga i toa ai te Māori i taua rā, ā, i aituā ai ngā hōia o Peretānia.

Nō taua pō ka whakarērea e Ngāi Te Rangi taua pā rā; ko ētahi i whakatā poto nei ki Pōterīwhi, i mua i tō rātou wehenga atu. Nō muri tonu iho ka hinga a Pōterīwhi ki ngā hōia, ka wāwāhia. Ka hangaia e ngā Pākehā he pā puninga mō rātou ki reira. E hia kē nei ngā whakamātauranga a te ope o Peretānia kia kōrerorero tahi rātou ko Ngāi Te Rangi, ēngari kīhai i momoho. Nō te 21 o Hune ka tīmata anō te pakanga. Ko te mutunga iho ko te hinganga o Ngāi Te Rangi. Ko Te Ranga te parekura, ā, ko Rāwiri Puhirake, te tino rangatira, i hinga. Kotahi marama i muri mai ka hauraro ā-rōpū a Ngāi Te Rangi ki a Greer, te kaingārahu o ngā hōia i Tauranga. Ko te matua nui tonu i whai iho i te 25 o Hūrae. I taua rā anō ka tuhia e Robley te whakaahua o Pene Taka, e mau ana i te pōtae Pākehā e kīia nei he 'forage cap', ā, ka kitea anō hoki te tau o tōna moko.

Nō muri i te pakanga ka noho a Pene Taka me Ngāti Rangi ki Papawhare, i te taha rāwhiti e tata ana ki te pūwaha o te awa o Wairoa. He mira parāoa nei i rāwāhi atu o tō rātou kāinga; ko Ngāti Rangi ngā kaiwhakahaere o taua mira i hangaia rā i te tekau tau mai i 1850. Ko Robley tētahi o ngā hōia i noho ki Tauranga mō tētahi wā, tae noa ki te tau 1866. Ki tāna he tino rata ngā whakaaro o Pene Taka i taua wā ki ngā hōia, ā, e puku mahi ana hoki ki te mahi i āna māra kai i ngā whenua i tukuna atu e te kāwanatanga ki a ia.

I roto i ngā tau e rua i muri mai i te pakanga i Te Ranga ka huri a Ngāti Rangi rātou ko ētahi o te mira parāoa, me Pirirākau o Te Puna (kāore nei i hauraro i te tau 1864) ki te hāhi Pai Mārire. I te tīmatanga e noho mārie ana rātou i ō rātou papakāinga i te taha o te ngahere i te rohe o Whakamārama. Ko te wāhi i noho ai a Ngāti Rangi ko Te Irihanga. Kīhai rātou i wero i te kāwanatanga. Ka haere te wā ka pupū ake te māngeongeo ki ngā hapū nō rātou ngā whenua i raupatutia rā e te kāwanatanga. Ko tō rātou huringa atu tēnā ki te auwaha i ngā tāngata rūri a te kāwanatanga. Ka puta te whakahau kia mau hereheretia a Pene Taka me te hunga nāna i whakapōrearea ngā kairūri. I Hānuere me Pēpuere o 1867 he rīriri te mahi a ngā hōia ki ngā hapū pōrearea nei. Ka peia te iwi nei ki te ngahere, kātahi ka tahuna ō rātou whare, ā, ka takakinohia te nuinga o ā rātou māra kai, e ngā hōia. Nō te pokapūtanga o Maehe, ka riro ērā o Ngāti Rangi e noho noa ana te mahi i te taha raro o Wairoa awa ki tuawhenua. Ko te nuinga o ngā toa o te ope Hauhau nō Te Pirirākau. Ko te whakaaro nā rātou i huaki a Rotorua, ēngari kīhai i riro. I ngā rā whakamutunga o Āperira ka hoki ake rātou ki te rohe o Whakamārama. I noho tautohetohe tonu ngā kaingārahu Hauhau nei a Pene Taka rāua ko Rāwiri Tata (o Te Pirirākau), ā, kore rawa i tuku i a rāua kia hauraro ki te kāwanatanga. Ko te kī a Pene Taka ko te take i rewa ai te rau o te patu he hiahia nōna ki te ngaki i te mate o Rāwiri Puhirake, i hinga rā ki Te Ranga.

Ahakoa te putaputa o te rongo kōrero whakaoho i te noho, kīhai i tū he pakanga ki te rohe o Tauranga, ā tae noa ki te tau 1870. Ki ngā āpiha a te kāwanatanga he Pirirākau katoa te hunga Hauhau rā, a Pene Taka rātou ko Rāwiri Tata mā. Ko te mahi a aua hapū rā he pānui i ō rātou whakaaro e pā ana ki ō rātou whenua i raupatutia e te kāwanatanga. E hia kē nei ngā wāwāhitanga o te tohu a ngā kairūri i Minden; ka aukatia ngā mahi rori a te kāwanatanga; me te whakaohiti anō ka whakamuia e rātou ngā Pākehā e kī ana he whakaaetanga ā-pukapuka ā rātou ki aua whenua. Ki a Pene Taka mā hoki, kei raro kē rātou i te mana o te Kīngitanga, nō reira e tika ana tā rātou āta whakahē i te kaha o te nohonoho mai a te tangata whai ki ō rātou whenua. Ko te kēhi a Pene Taka ki a J. T. Gellibrand i te tau 1877 tētahi o aua tautohenga pēnei. Ēngari, nō te māramatanga o tana take ki a Gellibrand ka ngāwari te ngākau o Pene Taka. Ko tana tonotanga atu tēnei kia haere ake tērā ki Ōmokoroa noho ai. Heoi anō, ko te hua o taua kēhi ko te whakaoho i te noho a te iwi i taua takiwā. Na, i te 21 o Hune 1879, tūtaki a Pene Taka rātou ko Rāwiri Tangitū me ētahi atu o ngā rangatira o Te Pirirākau ki te minita mō ngā take Māori, ki a Hōne Hīhana (John Sheehan), i te hui ki Whareroa i Tauranga. I reira ka whakaaetia mā te Pāremata e wānanga, e kōkiri ā rātou nawe kia tatū tōtika ai. Ahakoa rā hei whakaatu e takarita tonu ana rātou he wā tēnā ka tautohe, he wā tēnā ka tautohe anō.

I ōna tau whakamutunga ka tukuna e te kāwanatanga e £20 hei penihana ā-tau mō Pene Taka Tuaia. Nāna i arataki tōna iwi i roto i ā rātou mahi ahu whenua, mahi hokohoko hoki. I mate a ia i Te Puna i te 3 o Hūrae 1889. Ka mahue iho i a ia tōna hoa wahine a Umukaraka. Nō muri noa mai, nō te Hune o 1911 ka mate te pouaru rā ki Te Wairoa.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Alister Matheson. 'Tuaia, Pene Taka', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t107/tuaia-pene-taka (accessed 8 December 2019)