Captain Thomas Porter is the tall figure at right, seen with a group of Ngāitai kūpapa (pro-government Māori forces) in this photograph taken in Ōpōtiki in 1871. Porter, who came to New Zealand in the early 1860s, had served with Ngāti Porou fighting Te Kooti Arikirangi in 1868 and the following year became second-in-command of the Arawa division of the armed constabulary. With that force he took part in the final campaign against Tītokowaru before joining Ngāti Porou in the pursuit of Te Kooti in 1870 and 1871. The involvement of kūpapa in these conflicts was significant. In the initial Pātea Field Force, which fought Tītokowaru, there were about 150 kūpapa along with about 770 Europeans, but the number of Māori involved eventually rose to over 400. Most of these kūpapa were from lower Whanganui iwi and were led by Keepa te Rangihiwinui, known to the British as Major Kemp.
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