This diagram depicts the 'single-pair twining' technique known as whatu. This technique can produce durable and attractive woven objects and garments using only the fingers. No loom is required. The weft, or horizontal, threads are called aho. The vertical, or warp, threads are called whenu. In the basic version of whatu shown in this diagram, a single pair of aho are twined over and under each of the whenu.
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Source: Sidney Mead, The art of taaniko weaving: a study of its cultural context, technique and development. Wellington: Reed, 1968, p. 24