This diagram of the stages of stream erosion is taken from Patrick Marshall’s textbook, Geology of New Zealand (1912). Many similar diagrams showing stages of landscape development were later produced by Charles Cotton. Cotton was a student of Marshall, and was probably influenced by his teacher’s work.
Using this item
Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand
Reference: Patrick Marshall, Geology of New Zealand. Wellington: Government Print, 1912, fig. 7
Pen and ink drawing by Patrick Marshall
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