Children 16 and under in foster care live in the private homes of individuals, couples and families because Oranga Tamariki – Ministry for Children or the courts have decided that they are at risk of neglect or abuse in their own homes. Foster parents can choose whether they take in children referred to them. They are paid an allowance to cover the costs of the children in their care. This includes money for board and food, but also clothing, birthday and Christmas presents and weekly pocket money.
Some people (mainly women) who took in many children for money were referred to as ‘baby farmers’. The best known (and most infamous) was Southland woman Minnie Dean, who was executed after being convicted of the murder of children in her care. She became a figure in New Zealand folklore – her name was spoken aloud to scare children who misbehaved, and it was said that no plants would grow upon her grave.
Importance of foster care
Foster care has always been an option for children requiring out-of-home care. From the early days of European settlement women cared for children in need and received a government grant for their services. It was preferred by welfare officials over institutionalisation from the 1880s, especially for babies and younger children, though many were still placed in orphanages and industrial schools. Officials believed that care within a family context was a more wholesome, natural environment for children and better prepared them for life in the wider world. Foster care was also much cheaper.
By the late 1910s fostering was the most common option for children in state care. Between 1948 and 1971, 40–50% of children in state care were fostered.
Running alongside the belief that foster care was best was the ultimate social policy goal of returning children to their parents where possible. This occurred at the discretion of welfare officials. From 1961 birth parents could obtain an annual review of the care situation of their children.
In traditional Māori communities it was common for some children to be raised by relatives instead of their birth parents. This practice was called tamariki whāngai or atawhai. One well known whāngai was Mākereti (Maggie) Papakura (1873–1930), a Tūhourangi woman of mana, Rotorua hot-lakes guide and scholar. She was raised by her mother’s aunt and uncle until she was 10.
Belief in the value of maintaining family bonds grew throughout the 1970s and 1980s. Social workers were aware of the value Māori and Pacific people placed on kinship ties. More emphasis was placed on keeping children within family groups. The Children, Young Persons and their Families Act 1989 put immediate family care first. Care within the wider family was the next best option and care by non-family considered only if this was not possible.
This approach was followed in the 21st century. Ensuring children were not moved from home to home was seen as important. Child, Youth and Family (CYF) – the agency responsible for the care of children until April 2017 – had a pool of foster families and also worked with charitable organisations and professional agencies with their own foster families.
In the year to July 2017 there were 4,716 children and young people in out-of-home care and protection placements – 53% were with family of whānau members and 29% lived with non-family foster parents. Eighteen percent of children in out-of-home care were in other residential arrangements such as foster homes or residential facilities provided by approved non-governmental organisations, state-funded family homes, residential homes and other supported accommodation. Foster parents (both family or non-family members) continued to receive allowances to cover costs rather than salaries.
In 2016–7, 541 children and young people were in out-of-home placements with non-governmental organisations contracted to CYF (now Oranga Tamariki) to provide foster and residential care. Only 29 children or adolescents were in state-run care and protection residences.
To pay or not to pay
Paying foster parents a salary has been the subject of debate. In a 2006 newspaper article the chief executive of the New Zealand Family and Foster Care Federation said ‘we expect nurses and social workers to be paid a decent wage and still have compassionate hearts, so why not foster parents who work 24/7?’1 In contrast, the head of social services provider Open Homes Foundation Russell Martin said, ‘if you professionalise it, you lose that altruism.’
Family homes are houses owned by the government but run by two adult caregivers (who are not employees of Oranga Tamariki). They can accommodate up to six children under 16 at one time. Caregivers are not paid but receive an allowance for the children in their care and live in the house rent free. Usually one of the caregivers works in paid employment outside the home. Caregivers cannot choose which children they care for. The first family home opened in 1954.
Family homes traditionally sat between private foster homes and institutions, and catered for children who were not suited for placement in either of these – they may have been ‘difficult’ cases, or disabled. Children requiring short term emergency accommodation were also housed in family homes. There were 116 children placed in family homes in 2017.
Family homes accommodate a small number of the children assessed as at risk and in need of care and protection. In June 2015 there were 133 children living in these homes – 3% of total CYF (now Oranga Tamariki) placements.