Conditions deteriorated as towns became cities. Rubbish was dumped in the street and drains became open sewers, encouraging the spread of diseases like typhoid. This map of Te Aro – a working-class district of Wellington – identifies cases of typhoid during outbreaks in 1882 and 1890–91. The contagious nature of the disease is highlighted by the clustering of cases in particular streets. Such outbreaks led public health reformers to call for reticulated drinking water and sewerage systems. Once they were installed, the incidence of such diseases fell dramatically.
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Wellington City Archives
Reference: 00233:34:1892/740 typhoid map
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