Within one hapū in particular, Ngāti Tarāwhai of Te Arawa, the art of whakairo continued to thrive after the arrival of Europeans to New Zealand. As loyalists to the government, Ngāti Tarāwhai’s lands had not been confiscated, and they maintained a strong and unbroken line of tohunga whakairo (master carvers) into the modern era.
Tohunga whakairo Wero Tāroi
Ngāti Tarāwhai carver Wero Tāroi was perhaps the first to use steel chisels for carving. In the 1860s and 1870s he used this new technology to great effect, creating powerful sinuous figures on the maihi (barge boards) and amo (front post) of his house Houmaitawhiti (1860). The surface patterning is boldly carved but complements rather than competes with the sculptural forms. As well as the free-flowing boldness in his designs, Wero introduced bicultural innovations, for example carving European riding boots onto his figures and decorating them with modern paint rather than traditional kōkōwai (red ochre). He transmitted his knowledge to his apprentices Ānaha Te Rāhui, Neke Kapua and Tene Waitere.
As a young man Āpirana Ngata had mobilised his own hapū to restore their ancestral house, Porourangi, and had witnessed the positive effects of this on the community. As minister of native affairs he envisaged this happening on a national scale. He deeply resented the assimilationist attitudes of the day and sought to preserve the Māori culture. Ngata believed ‘The marae buildings … have always been the chief preoccupation of a Maori community. Until these are provided the community will not seriously take up other problems.’1
As more Europeans travelled to Rotorua as a popular tourist destination, the sense of freedom in evident in Wero’s work was gradually lost. Carvers became more self-conscious of their identity as Māori, and began to modify designs to please their European customers. Important patrons such as Charles Nelson, who operated a hotel, and Augustus Hamilton, director of the Colonial Museum, began to instruct carvers in the kind of work they wanted to buy. In 1905 Hamilton said, ‘natives could be trained under expert guidance in the production of articles of use, ornamented with native patterns’.2
As fewer meeting houses were built, carvers became more dependent on wealthy Pākehā patrons, who saw carving as a craft with the potential to draw tourists. They did not appreciate carving as a system of knowledge that encoded and communicated the Māori world view, and saw only its formal values. European patronage gradually imposed a system of European narrative on the carvers’ art which made it simpler for Europeans to understand. The inventive and wide artistic vocabulary of earlier carvers was gradually reduced and impoverished.
Rotorua School of Māori Arts and Crafts
This stiff and formal mode of carving continued under the Rotorua School of Māori Arts and Crafts, created in 1926. The school was first based in Te Ao Mārama, the church hall at St Faiths, Ōhinemutu. It was later moved to Utuhina, where it remained until 1937. The first intake of students included Pine Taiapa (a former apprentice of East Coast carver Hōne Ngātoto), Piri Poutapu and Waka Kereama of Waikato.
The programmes were engineered by Āpirana Ngata so that the government paid for the students and teaching staff while iwi raised funds for their own whare whakairo (carved ancestral house) or wharekai (dining hall). Carvers and their families would stay on tribal marae and be fed by the local people. This system produced 21 meeting houses, two exhibition houses, 10 dining halls, two assembly halls and six chapels. The 27 graduates went on to train the next generation of carvers.
‘As soon as people produced some money for a carved house he [Ngata] would send a group of carvers to make a start on the work, however the money would never quite be enough to do the whole job, so the carvers would soon be shifted to a further job. Once a start on a house had been made efforts were redoubled to get more money.’3
National style of house
Ngata created a ‘template’ for the national house which made allowances for regional differences, but all were treated to the robust modelling and deep relief of the Te Hau-ki-Tūranga style for the sake of visual coherence and unity. The pou (carved posts) and heke (rafters) of the Rotorua School houses ceased to be structural elements. They could potentially be made anywhere from pre-milled timber and simply added afterwards as decorative elements. By removing the work from its context and closely copying examples found in museums, the school was following a pattern that had been established by Pākehā patrons Hamilton and Nelson in the 1880s.
The carving school closed during the Second World War, and by the time it was resurrected in Rotorua in the 1960s as the Māori Arts and Crafts Institute, this philosophy of ‘mass production’ had reached exhaustion.