Hardy lichens occupy the highest reaches of the rocky coast, where they receive coatings of sea spray. Lichens are a partnership between fungus and algae or bacteria. Few lichens survive on coastal rocks, but those that do, such as Xanthoria ligulata (upper photo) and the crust-forming species (lower photo), are common around the country.
Using this item
Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand
Photograph by Melanie Lovell-Smith
This item has been provided for private study purposes (such as school projects, family and local history research) and any published reproduction (print or electronic) may infringe copyright law. It is the responsibility of the user of any material to obtain clearance from the copyright holder.
Add new comment