Before colonisation Māori parenting took place within the wider whānau. Grandparents were typically responsible for the day-to-day care of their grandchildren (mokopuna) while the parents did other jobs. This continued to occur after colonisation, though the nuclear-style European family arrangement also became common. This photograph shows Takurua Tamarau with his mokopuna Leo, Alfred and Lorna Tamarau in Rūātoki. He is sharing a hongi (pressing noses) with Leo.
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