From the 1840s until the 1870s, there were clashes between Māori and Pākehā. Some Māori who feared the loss of their land or cultural identity took up arms against the European newcomers. The first major conflict was the war in the north, precipitated when Hōne Heke cut down the flagpole at Russell as a protest against the effects of British colonisation. The last battle in this war was fought at Ruapekapeka. The remnants of the earthworks of this formidable fighting pā, seen here from the air, are now protected as an important historic place.
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Department of Conservation
Photograph by Kevin Jones
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