Small canoes throughout the Pacific were propelled mainly by paddling. Larger canoes, especially those built for the open ocean, could be either sailed or paddled. Paddles were also used to steer the craft as the canoes had no rudders. In smaller outriggers this was done by the person at the rear of the craft inserting their paddle into the water. In bigger ocean-going canoes a larger, specially designed paddle was used for steering.
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Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
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