A group of Māori prisoners of war are pictured on a prison hulk in Auckland Harbour in 1864. They were captured after the battle of Rangiriri in November 1863. About 200 prisoners were held on the hulk, then transferred to Kawau Island in the Hauraki Gulf. The entire party escaped and made their way back to their homes in the Waikato. Before the beginning of Māori urbanisation in the 1940s, relatively few Māori were imprisoned. The exceptions were prisoners of war in the 1860s and supporters of the passive-resistance campaign in Taranaki during the 1880s.
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