One of the reasons the Arctic region is not suitable for penguins is the presence of predatory land mammals, such as polar bears and wolves. In the southern hemisphere, penguins still have to contend with predators such as seals and orcas in the water. However, it is on land during breeding that they are most vulnerable. At sites south of New Zealand the main predators are birds such as the skua, seen here with the remains of a little penguin. On the mainland, penguins now face the additional threat of introduced mammals such as dogs, cats and ferrets.
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Department of Conservation
Photograph by Don Merton
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