Albert Métin was a young French academic who won a scholarship to study labour legislation in Australia and New Zealand. He visited New Zealand in 1899. Coming from a society where ideology had always been a significant factor in politics, he was struck by the fact that New Zealand's radical social legislation had been achieved with very little input from theory. He coined the phrase 'socialism without doctrines' and argued that the reforms in Australasia were pragmatic responses to problems, not governed by any socialist vision.
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