The arts and crafts style arose in the late 19th century in reaction to the mechanisation and artifice of industry. Promoters of the style were inspired by medieval houses, which were built of natural materials such as wood and emphasised the structure and the work of individual craftsmen. These features are evident in the interior of an arts and crafts house in Christchurch, photographed in 1909. The wooden ceiling beams are left exposed to highlight the house's structure, while the heavy use of wood panelling connects the dwelling to the natural environment. A carved built-in seat showcases the work of craftsmen.
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