Story: Electoral systems

Signing a coalition agreement

Signing a coalition agreement

Since the implementation of the mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system in New Zealand, no single party has won more than half the seats in the House of Representatives. As a result, all the governments formed under MMP have been coalitions. In this picture Helen Clark, prime minister and leader of the Labour Party, and Jim Anderton, Alliance Party leader and deputy prime minister, hold up copies of the coalition agreement they signed shortly after the 1999 general election. The Labour–Alliance coalition was a minority government: it had 59 seats (49 Labour seats and 10 Alliance seats) in the 120-member Parliament.

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Alexander Turnbull Library, Evening Post Collection (PAColl-0614)
Reference: EP/1999/3784/28a
Photograph by Maarten Holl

Permission of the Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand, Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa, must be obtained before any re-use of this image.

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How to cite this page:

Nigel S. Roberts, 'Electoral systems - MMP in practice', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, (accessed 28 May 2022)

Story by Nigel S. Roberts, published 20 Jun 2012, updated 1 Feb 2015