From the late 1970s University of Waikato psychologists, and prominent child-rearing experts, Jane and James Ritchie argued that the right of parents to physically discipline their children for the purposes of correction should be removed from the lawbooks. In their book Spare the rod (1981) they wrote that physical discipline was damaging to children and society, and did not achieve the results parents sought. In this and subsquent books they stated that alternative methods such as positive affirmation for good behaviour, and time out and discussions for bad behaviour, were more successful.
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