Although New Zealand is far from most conflicts, its long coastline and dependence on sea-borne trade have periodically made New Zealanders feel vulnerable. In the 1880s a ‘Russian scare’ (when Russia was threatening British interests in North India) led to the building of elaborate coastal forts such as these on Auckland’s Mt Victoria. The site overlooks the entrance to Waitematā Harbour, and is now a reserve.
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Photograph by Lloyd Homer
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